1. L. Parkes, The politics of ‘water scarcity’ in the Nile Basin: the case of Egypt, J. Polit. Int. Studies, Vol., 9 (2013) 433–480.
  2. World Bank, Middle-East and Northern Africa Water Outlook, 2011.
  3. Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (EMWRI), Water Scarcity in Egypt, February 2014,
  4. M.A. El-Khateeb, A.Z. Al-Herrway, M.M. Kamel, F.A. El-Gohary, Use of wetlands as post-treatment for anaerobically treated effluent, Desalination, 245 (2009) 50–59.
  5. G. Zeeman, G. Lettinga, The role of anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage in closing the water and nutrient cycle at community level, Wat. Sci. Technol., 39(5) (1999) 187–194.
  6. V. Arthurson, Closing the global energy and nutrient cycles through application of biogas residue to agricultural land – potential benefits and drawbacks, Energies, 2 (2009) 226–242.
  7. H.J. Gijzen, Anaerobes, Aerobes and phototrophs: a winning team for wastewater management, Water Sci. Technol., 44 (8) (2001) 123–132.
  8. A.A. Khan, M. ASCE, R.Z. Gaur, I. Mehrotra, A.A. Kazmi, Removal of reduced species from the effluent of UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater, J. Environ. Eng., 142(11) (2016) 04016060.
  9. The United Nations World Water Development Report (UNWWD), Wastewater The Untapped Resource, Executive Summary, 2017
  10. B. Lew, M. Belavski, S. Admon, S. Tarre, M. Green, Temperature effect on UASB reactor operation for domestic wastewater treatment in temperate climate regions, Water Sci. Technol., 48 (3)(2003) 25–30
  11. M.A. El-Khateeb, F.A. El-Gohary, Combining UASB technology and wetland for domestic wastewater reclamation and reuse, Water Supply, 3(4) (2003) 201–208.
  12. C.A.L. Chernicharo, Post-treatment options for the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater, Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., 5 (2006) 73–92.
  13. A.A. Khan, R.Z. Gaur, V.K. Tyagi, A. Khursheed, B. Lew, A.A. Kazmi, I. Mehrotra, Sustainable options of post treatment of UASB effluent treating sewage: a review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 55 (12) (2011) 1232–1251.
  14. H.I. Abdel-Shafy, M.A. El-Khateeb, Integration of septic tank and constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater in Egypt, Desal. Water Treat., 51 (16–18) (2013) 3539–3546.
  15. M. Takahashi, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuramoto, A. Nagano, S. Shimozaki, H. Sumino, N. Araki, S. Yamazaki, S. Kawakami, H. Harada, Performance of a pilot-scale sewage treatment: an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors combined system by sulfur-redox reaction process under low-temperature conditions, Bioresour Technol. 102 (2) (2011) 753–757.
  16. M. Mahmoud, A. Tawfik, F. El-Gohary, Use of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as a promising post-treatment system for municipal wastewater. Chem Eng J., 168 (2011) 535– 43.
  17. A. Tawfik, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent, Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., 33 (2010) 779–785.
  18. T. Onodera, M. Tandukar, D. Sugiyana, S. Uemura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Development of a sixth-generation down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor using rigid sponge media for post-treatment of UASB treating municipal sewage, Bioresour. Technol., 152 (93–100) 2014
  19. F. El-Gohary, A. Tawfik, M. Badawy, M.A. El-Khateeb, Potential of anaerobic treatment for catalytically oxidized olive mill wastewater (OMW), Bioresour. Technol., 100 (2009) 2147–2154
  20. K.D. Bhuyar Er., Treatment of domestic wastewater in an up flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPBR), Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Studies, 2(3) (2013) 122–124,
  21. A. Pallavi, K. Sunil, K. Kavita, Studies on packed bed treatment for organic matter in distillery effluent, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Innov. Technol., 3(5) (2014) 268–272,
  22. M. Shawaqfah, Enhancing the removal of organic matter and nutrient from wastewater by using the packed bed biological reactor, J. Environ. Protect., 5 (2014) 232–239,
  23. S. Nikolaeva, E. Sánchez, R. Borja, Dairy wastewater treatment by anaerobic fixed bed reactors from laboratory to pilot-scale plant: a case study in costa rica operating at ambient temperature, Int. J. Environ. Res., 7 (3) (2013) 759–766,
  24. H. Lim, A review on spun bond process, J. Textile Apparel Technol. Manage., 6 (3) (2010) 1–13, .
  25. American Public Health Association (APHA), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed., Washington, DC: APHA, 2012
  26. G. Lettinga, The Route of Anaerobic Waste (Water) Treatment, Environmental Anaerobic Technology Applications and New Developments, H.H.P Feng, ed., Imperical Collage Press, 1987, pp. 1–15.
  27. Haskoning, Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Under Tropical Conditions – Final Report. Royal Dutch Consulting Engineers and Architects, 1989.
  28. T. Nadu, Comparative Study on Startup Performance of UAHR and UASB Reactors in Anaerobic Treatment of Distillery Spentwash, 6 (2012) 235–244.
  29. H. Rizvi, N. Ahmad, F. Abbas, I.H. Bukhari, A. Yasar, S. Ali, T. Yasmeen, M. Riaz, Start-up of UASB reactors treating municipal wastewater and effect of temperature/sludge age and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on its performance, Arab. J. Chem., 8 (2015) 780–786.
  30. Metcalf & Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Inc., 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill Publishers, Boston MA, USA, 2003, p 186.
  31. P.L. McCarty, One Hundred Years of Anaerobic Treatment, In: Hughes PE, Stafford DA, Wheatley BI, Baader W, Lettinga G, Nyns EJ, Verstraete W, Wentworth RL (eds) Anaerobic digestion. Elsevier Biomedical Press BV, Amsterdam, 1982, pp. 3–22.
  32. S.I. Abou-Elela, M.A. El-Khateeb, M.E. Fawzy, W. Abdel-Halim, Innovative sustainable anaerobic treatment for wastewater. Desal. Water Treat., 51 (2013) 7490–7498.
  33. A.P. Picanco, M.V.G. Vallero, E.P. Gianotti, M. Zaiat, C.E. Blundi, Influence of porosity and composition of supports on the methanogenic biofilm characteristics developed in a fixed bed anaerobic reactor. Water Sci. Technol., 44 (2001) 197–204.
  34. G. Lettinga, Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems. Anton leeuw, 67 (1995) 3–28.
  35. N. Mahmoud, Anaerobic pretreatment of sewage under low temperature (15°C) conditions in an integrated UASB-digester system. Ph.D Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2002
  36. M. Tandukar, I. Machdar, S. Uemura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Potential of a combination of UASB and DHS (down flow hanging sponge) reactors as a novel sewage treatment system for developing countries: a longterm evaluation, J. Environ. Eng., ASCE, 132 (2006) 166–172,
  37. EEAA, Waste Management Central Department, 2012.
  38. R. Al-Jarallah, E. Aleisa, A Baseline Study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the state of Kuwait, Waste Manage. 34 (2014) 952–960,
  39. WHO 1989. Health guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. Technical Report Series 778. Geneva: World Health Organization.