1. P. Chand, A. Bafana, Y.B. Pakade, Xanthate modified apple pomace as an adsorbent for removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) Pb (II), and its application to real industrial wastewater, Inter. Biodet. Biodeg., 97 (2015) 60–66.
  2. S.K.R. Yadanaparthi, D. Graybill, R. von Wruszka, Adsorbents for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, lead from contaminated waters, J. Hazard. Mater., 171 (2009) 1–15.
  3. M.P. Waalkes, Cadmium carcino genesis in review, J. Inorg. Biochem., 79 (2000) 241–244.
  4. WHO, Air quality guidelines for europe, 2nd ed., WHO Regional Publications, (2006).
  5. V.K. Gupta, C. Jain, I. Ali, M. Sharma, V. Saini, Removal of cadmium nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash a sugar industry waste, Water Res., 37 (2003) 4038–4044.
  6. A. Moubarik, N. Grimi, Valorization of olive stone sugar cane bagasse by-products as biosorbents for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution, Food Res. Inter., 73 (2015) 169–175.
  7. F. Ghorbani, H. Younesi, S.M. Ghasempouri, A.A. Zinatizadeh, M. Amini, A. Daneshi, Application of response surface methodology for optimization of cadmium biosorption in an aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chem. Eng. J., 145 (2008) 267–275.
  8. A. Shahidi, N.J. Fallizi, A.J. Fallizi, Evaluation of the natural adsorbent luffa cylindrical for the removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous environments, J. Water Wastewater., 3 (2015) 51–61. (in Persian)
  9. V.K. Gupta, A. Nayak, Cadmium removal recovery from aqueous solutions by novel adsorbents prepared from orange peel Fe2O3 nanoparticles, Chem. Eng. J., 180 (2012) 81–90.
  10. H.A. Hegazi, Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using agricultural industrial wastes as adsorbents, J. HBRC., 9 (2013) 276–282.
  11. T.G. Ammari, Utilization of a natural ecosystem bio-waste; leaves of Arundo donax reed, as a raw material of low-cost eco-biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous phase, Ecolo. Eng., 71 (2014) 466–473.
  12. X. Niu, L. Zheng. J. Zhou, Z. Dang, Z. Li, Synthesis of an adsorbent from sugarcane bagass by graft copolymerization its utilization to remove Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution, J. Ins. Chem. Eng., 45 (2014) 2557–2564.
  13. M. Feizi, M. Jalali, Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using sunflower, potato, canola walnut shell residues, J. Ins. Chem. Eng., 54 (2015) 125–136.
  14. E. Cheraghi, E. Ameri, A. Moheb, Continuous biosorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions by sesame waste: thermodynamics fixed-bed column studies, Desal. Water Treat., 57 (2015) 1–14.
  15. Q. Cheng, Q. Huang, S. Khan, Y. Liu, Z. Liao, G. Li, Y.S. Ok, Adsorption of Cd by peanut husks peanut husk biochar from aqueous solutions, Ecol. Eng., 87 (2016) 240–245.
  16. E.D. Asuquo, A.D. Martin, Sorption of cadmium (II) ion from aqueous solution onto sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) peel adsorbent: Characterisation, kinetic isotherm studies, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. J., 4 (2016) 4207–4228.
  17. M.M. Sekhula, J.O. Okonkwo, C.M. Zvinowa, N.N. Agyei, A.J. Chaudhary, Fixed bed column adsorption of Cu (II) onto maize tassel-PVA beads, J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol., 3 (2012).
  18. R. Malekian, J. Abedi-Koupai, S.S. Eslamian, S.F. Mousavi, K.C. Abbaspour, M. Afyuni, Ion-exchange process for ammonium removal release using natural Iranian zeolite, Appl. Clay Sci., 51 (2011) 323–329.
  19. M. Ghasemi, M. Naushad, N. Ghasemi, Y. Khosravi-fard, Adsorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solution using new adsorbents prepared from agricultural waste: Adsorption isotherm kinetic studies, J. Ind, Eng. Chem., 20 (2014) 2193–2199.
  20. M. Shirvani, H. Shariatmadari, M. Kalbasi, Kinetics of cadmium desorption from fibrous silicate clay minerals: Influence of organic ligs aging, Appl. Clay Sci., 37 (2007) 175–184.
  21. M. Abedi, M.H. Salmani, S.A. Mozaffari, Adsorption of Cd ions from aqueous solutions by iron modified pomegranate peel carbons: kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 13 (2016) 2045–2056.
  22. M. Ossman, M. Mansour, M. Fattah, N. Taha, Y. Kiros, Peanuts shell talc powder for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions, Bulg. Chem. Comm., 3 (2014) 629–639.
  23. M. El-Sadaawy, O. Abdelwahab, Adsorptive removal of nickel from aqueous solutions by activated carbons from doum seed (Hyphaenethebaica) coat, Alexria Eng. J., 53 (2014) 399–408.
  24. B.S. Smolyakov, A.K. Sagidullin, A.L. Bychkov, I.O. Lomovsky O.I. Lomovsky, Humic-modified natural and synthetic carbon adsorbents for the removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solutions, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 3 (2015) 1939–1946.
  25. Z. Aksu, F. Gönen, Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves, Process Biochem., 39 (2004) 599–613.
  26. G. Yan, T. Viraraghavan, Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized M. rouxii biomass, Bioresour. Technol., 78 (2001) 243–249.
  27. J.P. Chen, J.T. Yoon, S. Yiacoumi, Effects of chemical physical properties of influent on copper sorption onto activated carbon fixed-bed columns, Carbon, 41 (2003) 1635–1644.
  28. P. Lodeiro, R. Herrero, M.S. De Vicente, Batch desorption studies multiple sorption–regeneration cycles in a fixed-bed column for Cd (II) elimination by protonated Sargassum muticum, J. Hazard. Mater., 137 (2006) 1649–1655.
  29. B.Y. Chen, C.Y. Chen, W.Q. Guo, H.W. Chang, W.M. Chen, D.J. Lee, J.S. Chang, Fixed-bed biosorption of cadmium using immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N cells on loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge, Bioresour. Technol., 160 (2014) 175– 181.
  30. S. Pilli, V.V. Goud, K. Mohanty, Biosorption of Cr (VI) on immobilized Hydrilla verticillata in a continuous up-flow packed bed: prediction of kinetic parameters breakthrough curves, Desal. Water Treat., 50 (2012) 115–124.
  31. J. Cruz-Olivares, C. Perez-Alonso, C. Barrera-Diaz, F. Ureña-Nuñez, M.C. Chaparro-Mercad, B. Bilyeu, Modeling of lead (II) biosorption by residue of allspice in a fixed-bed column, Chem. Eng. J., 228 (2013) 21–27.
  32. A.P. Lim, A.Z. Aris, Continuous fixed-bed column study adsorption modeling: Removal of cadmium (II) lead (II) ions in aqueous solution by dead calcareous skeletons, BioChem. Eng. J., 87 (2014) 50–61.
  33. Z. Xu, J.g. Cai, B.c. Pan, Mathematically modeling fixed-bed adsorption in aqueous systems, J. Zhejiang University Sci. Appl. Phys. Eng., 14 (2013) 155–176.
  34. F.H. Motamedi, N. Mouazed, A.J. Haghighifard, M. Amiri, Investigation of kinetics and isotherms of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using nanoclay, J. Water Waste., 3 (2014) 118–126. (in Persian)
  35. F.Y. Wang, H. Wang, J.W. Ma, Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent bamboo charcoal, J. Hazard. Mater., 177 (2010) 300–306.
  36. A. Keshtkar, H. Dastehbashi, M.G. Turkabad, M.A. Mousavi, Investigating the effect of concentration and inflow rate of fixed-bed column on the bio-adsorption of nickel by Cystoseira indica-induced brown algae and modeling the experimental results, Ir. J. Health. Environ., 6 (2013) 417–430. (in Persian)
  37. M. Shamsuddin, M.N. Zarandi, M. Fazli, K.L. Haghbin, Removal of strontium (II) from aqueous solutions through adsorption surface method by exogel derived from TEOS: A review of a batch system and fixed bed column, Sci. Res. J. Appl. Chem., 9 (2014) 35–50. (in Persian)
  38. S.S. Baral, N. Das, T.S. Ramulu, S.K. Sahoo, S.N. Das, G.R. Chaudhury, Removal of Cr(VI) by thermally activated weed Salvinia cucullata in a fixed-bed column, J. Hazard. Mater., 161 (2009) 1427–1435.
  39. M. Farasati, Evaluation of the effects of straw and sugarcane straw nano-structure on nitrate removal from contaminated water, PhD thesis. Irrigation and Drainage. Shahid Chamran Uni, Ahwaz., 2011. (in Persian)
  40. M.H. Ehrampoush, H. Masoudi, A.H. Mahvi, M.H. Salmani, Prevalent kinetic model for Cd (II) adsorption from aqueous solution on barley straw, Fresenius Environ. Bull., 22 (2013) 2314–2318.
  41. K.S. Rao, S. Anand, P. Venkateswarlu, Modeling the kinetics of Cd (II) adsorption on Syzygium cumini L leaf powder in a fixed bed mini column, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17 (2011) 174–181.
  42. J. Nwabanne, P. Igbokwe, Adsorption performance of packed bed column for the removal of lead (II) using oil palm fiber, Inter. J. Appl. Sci. Technol., 2 (2012) 106–115.