1. IDA, Desalination by the Numbers, International Desalination Association, by-the-numbers, last visited 22-2-2017.
  2. N. Eckardt, E. Cominelli, M. Galbiati, C. Tonelli, The future of science: food and water for life, Plant Cell, 21(2) (2009) 368–372.
  3. M. Al Dayel, Geothermal resources in Saudi Arabia, Geothermics, 17 (1988) 465–476.
  4. S. Rehman, A. Shash, Geothermal resources of Saudi Arabia – Country Update Report, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24–29 April 2005.
  5. H.M. Hanan, M. Taleb, Barriers Hindering the Utilisation of Geothermal Resources in Saudi Arabia, International Conference and Exhibition on Green Energy and Sustainability for Arid Regions and Mediterranean Countries, Le Royal Hotel Amman, Jordan, November, 10–12, 2009.
  6. R.I.S. AlMudaiheem, S.O.A. AlYousef, T. Sharif, A.K.M. AmirulIslam, Performance evaluation of ten years operation experience of brackish water RO desalination in Manfouha plants, Riyadh, Desalination, 120 (1998) 115–120.
  7. M. Khayet, Membranes and theoretical modeling of membrane distillation: a review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 164 (2011) 56–88.
  8. M. Khayet, T. Matsuura, Membrane Distillation: Principles and Application, Elsevier, Netherlands, 2011.
  9. A. Alkhudhiri, N. Darwish, N. Hilal, Membrane distillation: a comprehensive review, Desalination, 287 (2012) 2–18.
  10. A.M. Alklaibi, N. Lior, Membrane-distillation desalination: status and potential, Desalination, 171 (2005) 111–131.
  11. J. Orfi, N. Loussif, Modeling of a membrane distillation unit for desalination, In: Desalination: Methods Costs and Technology. I.A. Urbaneness, ed., Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2010, pp. 143–174.
  12. M.S. El-Bourawi, Z. Ding, R. Ma, M.A. Khayat, Framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process, J. Membr. Sci., 285 (2006) 4–29.
  13. M. Khayet, Desalination by Membrane Distillation. In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Science (EOLSS), Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies, 2010.
  14. J. Phattaranawik, R. Jiraratananon, Direct contact membrane distillation: effect of mass transfer on heat transfer, J. Membr. Sci., 188 (2001) 137–143.
  15. M. Mahdi, A. Shirazi, A. Kargari, A review on applications of membrane distillation (MD) process for wastewater treatment, J. Membr. Sci. Res., 1 (2015) 101–112.
  16. D.U. Lawal, A.E. Khalifa, Flux prediction in direct contact membrane distillation, Int. J. Mater. Mech. Manufact., 2(4) (2014) 302–308.
  17. K. Nakoa, A. Date, A. Akbarzadeh, A research on water desalination using membrane distillation, Desal. Water Treat., 56(10) (2015) 2618–2630.
  18. J. Lee, Y. Kim, W. Kim, L. Francis, G. Amy, N. Ghaffour, Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane, J. Membr. Sci., 478 (2015) 85–95.
  19. R.P. Raut, K.S. Kulkarni, Desalination by membrane distillation, Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Stud., 1(3) (2012) 115–121.
  20. M. Safavi, T. Mohammadi, High-salinity water desalination using VMD, Chem. Eng. J., 149 (2009) 191–195.
  21. C-D. Ho, C-H. Huang, F-C. Tsai, W-T. Chen, Performance improvement on distillate flux of counter current-flow direct contact membrane distillation systems, Desalination, 338 (2014) 26–32.
  22. E. Drioli, A. Ali, F. Macedonio, Membrane distillation: recent developments and perspectives, Desalination, 356 (2015) 56–84.
  23. F. Macedonio, E. Drioli, Pressure-driven membrane operations and membrane distillation technology integration for water purification, Desalination, 223 (2008) 396–409.
  24. H.E.S. Fath, S.M. Elsherbiny, A.A. Hassan, M. Rommel, M. Wieghaus, J. Koschikowski, M.V. Atansever, PV and thermally driven small-scale, stand-alone solar desalination systems with very low maintenance needs, Desalination, 225 (2008) 58–69.
  25. J. Koschikowski, M. Wieghaus, M. Rommel, V.S. Ortin, B.J. Suarez, R.B. Rodríguez, Experimental investigations on solar driven stand-alone membrane distillation systems for remote areas, Desalination, 248 (2008) 125–131.
  26. T-C. Chen, C-D. Ho, Immediate assisted solar direct contact membrane distillation in saline water desalination, J. Membr. Sci., 358 (2010) 122–130.
  27. M. Khayet, Solar desalination by membrane distillation: dispersion in energy consumption analysis and water production costs (a review), Desalination, 308 (2013) 89–101.
  28. D. Winter, J. Koschikowski, M. Wieghaus, Desalination using membrane distillation: experimental studies on full scale spiral wound modules, J. Membr. Sci., 375 (2011) 104–112.
  29. S. Kalogirou, Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources, Progr. Energy Combust. Sci., 31 (2005) 242–281.
  30. O. Andrjesdóttir, C.L. Ong, M. Nabavi, S. Paredes, A.S.G. Khalil, M. Bruno, D. Poulikakos, An experimentally optimized model for heat and mass transfer in direct contact membrane distillation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 66 (2013) 855–867.
  31. A. Al-Aenzi, A.Q. Sharif, M.I. Sanduk, A.R. Khan, Experimental investigation of heat and mass transfer in tubular membrane distillation module for desalination, ISRN Chemical Engineering, (2012) 1–8.
  32. K. Fard, Y.M. Manawi, T. Rhadfi, K.A. Mahmoud, M. Khraisheh, F. Benyahia, Synoptic analysis of direct contact membrane distillation performance in Qatar: A case study, Desalination, 360 (2015) 97–107.
  33. E. Close, E. Sørensen, Modelling of direct contact membrane distillation for desalination, 20thEuropean Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering – ESCAPE20, 6–9 June 2010, Italy.
  34. G. Guan, X. Yang, R. Wang, A.G. Fane, evaluation of heat utilization in membrane distillation desalination system integrated with heat recovery, Desalination, 366 (2015) 80–93.
  35. H. Geng, J. Wang, C. Zhang, P. Li, H. Chang, Highwater recovery of RO brine using multi-stage air gap membrane distillation, Desalination, 355 (2015) 178–185.
  36. L.M.L. Camacho, J. Dumée, J. Zhang, M. Li, J. Duke, S. Gomez, S. Gray, Advances in membrane distillation for water desalination and purification applications, Water, 5 (2013) 94–196.
  37. B.L. Pangarkar, M.G. Sane, M. Guddad, Reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for desalination of groundwater: a review, ISRN Materials Science, Volume 2011, Article ID 523124, 1–9.
  38. S.T. Bouguecha, S.E. Alya, M.H. Al-Beiruttya, M.M. Hamdia, A. Boubakrib, Solar driven DCMD: performance evaluation and thermal energy efficiency, Chem. Eng. Res. Design, 100 (2015) 331–340.
  39. Y.C. Tzahi, V.D. Adams, A.E. Childress, Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane distillation: a new approach to flux enhancement, J. Membr. Sci., 228 (2004) 5–16.
  40. J.H. Zhang, S. Gray, J.D. Li, Modelling heat and mass transfers in DCMD using compressible membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 387 (2012) 7–16.
  41. J. Zhang, Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Membrane Distillation, Ph.D. Thesis, Victoria University, Australia, 2011.
  42. D. Winter, J. Koschikowski, S. Ripperger, Desalination using membrane distillation: Flux enhancement by feed water deaeration on spiral-wound modules, J. Membr. Sci., 423–424, 15 (2012) 215–224.
  43. D. Winter, J. Koschikowski, D. Düver, P. Hertel, U. Beuscher, Evaluation of MD process performance: effect of backing structures and membrane properties under different operating conditions, Desalination, 323 (2013) 120–133.
  44. G. Rao, R. Sage, S.R. Hiibel, A.E. Childress, Simplified flux prediction in direct contact membrane distillation using a membrane structural parameter, Desalination, 351 (2014) 151–162.
  45. T-C. Chen, C-D. Ho, H-M. Yeh, Theoretical modeling and experimental analysis of direct contact membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 330(1–2) (2009) 279–287.
  46. V. Karanikola, A.F. Corral, H. Jiang, A.E. Sáez, R.G. Arnold, Effects of membrane structure and operational variables on membrane distillation performance, J. Membr. Sci., 524 (2017) 87–96.
  47. F. Eleiwi, N. Ghaffour, A.S. Alsaadi, L. Francis, T-M. Laleg-Kirati, Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, Desalination, 384 (2016) 1–11.
  48. F. Mahmoudia, G.M. Goodarzia, S. Dehghania, A. Akbarzadeha, Experimental and theoretical study of a lab scale permeate gap membrane distillation setup for desalination, Desalination, 419 (2017) 197–210.