1. M.R. Boni, Fenomeni di inquinamento degli ambienti naturali, Principi e metodi di studio, Carocci Editore, Rome, 2007.
  2. D. Kołodyńska, R. Wnetrzak, J.J. Leahy, M.H.B. Hayes, W. Kwapiński, Z. Hubicki, Kinetic and adsorptive characterization of biochar in metal ions removal, Chem. Eng. J., 197 (2012) 295–305.
  3. J.J. Harrison, H. Ceri, C.A. Stremick, R.J. Turner, Persister cells, the biofilm matrix and tolerance to metal cations in biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Environ. Microbiol., 7 (2005) 981–994.
  4. I. ur Rehman, M. Ishaq, L. Ali, S. Khan, I. Ahmad, I.U. Din, H. Ullah, Enrichment, spatial distribution of potential ecological and human health risk assessment via toxic metals in soil and surface water ingestion in the vicinity of Sewakht mines, district Chitral, Northern Pakistan, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 154 (2018) 127–136.
  5. N. Colantonio, Y. Kim, Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells, J. Hazard. Mater., 311 (2016) 134–141.
  6. D.J. Ennigrou, L. Gzara, M.R.B. Romdhane, M. Dhahbi, Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration, Desalination, 246 (2009) 363–369.
  7. D. Ghosh, R. Saha, A. Ghosh, R. Nandi, B. Saha, A review on toxic cadmium biosorption from contaminated wastewater, Desal. Wat. Treat., 53 (2013) 413–420.
  8. Y. He, L. Luo, S. Liang, M. Long, H. Xu, Synthesis of mesoporous silica-calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles and their potential as efficient adsorbent for cadmium ions removal from aqueous solution, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 525 (2018) 126–135.
  9. F.A. Al-Khaldi, B. Abu-Sharkh, A.M. Abulkibash, M.A. Atieh, Cadmium removal by activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon fly ash: a comparative study, Desal. Wat. Treat., 53 (2015) 1417–1429.
  10. M.I. Inyang, B. Gao, Y. Yao, Y. Xue, A. Zimmerman, A. Mosa, P. Pullammanappallil, Y.S. Ok, X. Cao, A review of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent for aqueous heavy metal removal, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 46 (2016) 406–433.
  11. R. Goswami, J. Shim, S. Deka, D. Kumari, R. Kataki, M. Kumar, Characterization of cadmium removal from aqueous solution by biochar produced from Ipomoea fistulosa at different pyrolytic temperatures, Ecol. Eng., 97 (2016) 444–451.
  12. J.M. Novak, W.J. Busscher, D.W. Watts, D.A. Laird, M.A. Ahmedna, M.A. Mind, Short-term CO2 mineralization after additions of biochar and switchgrass to a Typic Kandiudult, Geoderma, 154 (2010) 281–288.
  13. Y. He, X. Zhou, L. Jiang, M.D.Z. Li, G. Zhou, H. Wallace, Effects of biochar application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes: a metaanalysis, GCB Bioenergy, 9 (2017) 743–755.
  14. A. Demirbas, Effects of temperature and particle size on biochar yield from pyrolysis of agricultural residues, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 72 (2004) 243–248.
  15. P. Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis: Practical Design Academic Press, USA, 2010, ISBN 978-0-12-374988-8.
  16. L. Zhao, X. Cao, O. Mašek, A. Zimmerman, Heterogeneity of biochar properties as a function of feedstock sources and production temperatures, J. Hazard. Mater., 256–257 (2013) 1–9.
  17. J. Lehmann, S. Joseph, Biochar for environmental management: an introduction, Sci. Technol., 1 (2009) 1–12.
  18. M. Uchimiya, L.H. Wartelle, K.T. Klasson, C.A. Fortier, I.M. Lima, Influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar property and function as a heavy metal sorbent in soil, J. Agric. Food Chem., 59 (2011) 2501–2510.
  19. W.M.A.W. Daud, W.S.W. Ali, M.Z. Sulaiman, Effect of carbonization temperature on the yield and porosity of char produced from palm shell, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 76 (2001) 1281–1285.
  20. J. Štefelová, T. Zelenka, V. Slovák, Biosorption (removing) of Cd(II), Cu(II) and methylene blue using biochar produced by different pyrolysis conditions of beech and spruce sawdust, Wood Sci. Technol., 51 (2017) 1321–1338.
  21. O.E. Abdel Salam, N.A. Reiad, M.M. ElShafei, A study of the removal characteristics of heavy metals from wastewater by low-cost adsorbents, J. Adv. Res., 2 (2011) 297–303.
  22. J. Tang, Z. Wenying, K. Rai, K. Arata, Characteristics of biochar and its application in remediation of contaminated soil, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 116 (2017) 653–659.
  23. C. Wang, D. Alidoust, X. Yang, A. Isoda, Effects of bamboo biochar on soybean root nodulation in multi-elements contaminated soils, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 154 (2018) 62–69.
  24. N. Popa, M. Visa, The synthesis, activation and characterization of charcoal powder for the removal of methylene blue and cadmium from wastewater, Adv. Powder Technol., 28 (2017) 1866–1876.
  25. C. Reyer, P. Lasch-Born, F. Suckow, M. Gutsch, A. Murawski, T. Pilz, Projections of regional changes in forest net primary productivity for different tree species in Europe driven by climate change and carbon dioxide, Ann. For. Sci., 71 (2014) 211–225.
  26. X. Zhang, H. Wang, L. He, K. Lu, A. Sarmah, J. Li, N.S. Bolan, J. Pei, H. Huang, Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 20 (2013) 8472–8483.
  27. P. Suksabye, A. Pimthong, P. Dhurakit, P. Mekvichitsaeng, P. Thiravetyan, Effect of biochars and microorganisms on cadmium accumulation in rice grains grown in Cd-contaminated soil, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23 (2016) 962–973.
  28. E. Di Mattia, F. Paladini, P. fluorescens spp. Strain 15A, Used as Biostimulant, Improves Cadmium Accumulation in Tomato, The 2nd World Congress on the use of Biostimulants in Agriculture, Florence, Italy, 2015.
  29. L.D. Benefield, J.F. Judkins, B.L. Weand, Process Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, USA, 1982.
  30. Y.S. Ho, G. McKay, Pseudo second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem., 4 (1999) 451–465.
  31. I. Langmuir, The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40 (1918) 1361–1403.
  32. R. Sivaraj, C. Namasivayam, K. Kadirvelu, Orange peel as an adsorbent in the removal of acid violet 17 (acid dye) from aqueous solutions, Waste Manage., 21 (2001) 105–110.
  33. R.M. Alia, H.A. Hamada, M.M. Hussein, G.F. Malash, Potential of using green adsorbent of heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions: adsorption kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamic, mechanism and economic analysis, Ecol. Eng., 91 (2016) 317–332.
  34. M. Abd El-Latif, M. Elkady, Equilibrium isotherms for harmful ions sorption using nano zirconium vanadate ion exchanger, Desalination, 255 (2010) 21–43.