1. A. Mohammad, Y. Teow, W. Ang, Y. Chung, D. Oatley-Radcliffe, N. Hilal, Nanofiltration membranes review: recent advances and future prospects, Desalination, 356 (2015) 226–254.
  2. T. Darton, U. Annunziata, F.V. Pisano, S. Gallego, Membrane autopsy helps to provide solutions to operational problems, Desalination, 167 (2004) 239–245.
  3. A.S. Al-Amoudi, Factors affecting natural organic matter (NOM) and scaling fouling in NF membranes: a review, Desalination, 259 (2010) 1–10.
  4. W. Sun, J. Liu, H. Chu, B. Dong, Pretreatment and membrane hydrophilic modification to reduce membrane fouling, Membranes, 3 (2013) 226–241.
  5. A.R. García, N. Martel, I. Nuez, Short review on predicting fouling in RO desalination, Membranes, 7 (2017) 1–17.
  6. SAMCO, Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane filtration systems: common problems and how to fix them, 04 May 2017. [Online]. Available:, Accessed 04 July 2018.
  7. J. Kilduff, S. Mattaraj, G. Belfort, Flux decline during nanofiltration of naturally-occurring dissolved organic matter: effects of osmotic pressure, membrane permeability, and cake formation, J. Membr. Sci., 239 (2004) 39–53.
  8. A. Zularisam, A. Ismail, R. Salim, Behaviours of natural organic matter in membrane filtration for surface water treatment — a review, Desalination, 194 (2006) 211–231.
  9. F. Saravia, A. Klüpfel, A.Z. Richard, F.H. Frimmel, Identification of nanofiltration fouling layer constituents, Desal. Water Treat., 51 (2013) 37–39.
  10. Q. Li, M. Elimelech, Natural organic matter fouling and chemical cleaning of nanofiltration membranes, Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply, 4 (2004) 245–251.
  11. W.R. Bowen, J.S. Welfoot, Modelling the performance of membrane nanofiltration critical assessment and model development, Chem. Eng. Sci., (2002) 1121–1137.
  12. A. Al-Amoudi, R.W. Lovitt, Fouling strategies and the cleaning system of NF membranes and factors affecting cleaning efficiency, J. Membr. Sci., 303 (2007) 4–28.
  13. Y. Kaya, H. Barlas, S. Arayici, Evaluation of fouling mechanisms in the nanofiltration of solutions with high anionic and nonionic surfactant contents using a resistance-in-series model, J. Membr. Sci., 367 (2011) 45–54.
  14. Y. Fang, S.J. Duranceau, Study of the effect of nanoparticles and surface morphology on reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane productivity, Membranes, 3 (2013) 196–225.
  15. L.D. Nghiem, P.J. Coleman, C. Espendiller, Mechanisms underlying the effects of membrane fouling on the nanofiltration of trace organic contamina, Desalination, 250 (2010) 682–687.
  16. S. Shirazi, C. Lin, D. Chen, Inorganic fouling of pressure-driven membrane processes - a critical review, Desalination, 250 (2010) 236–248.
  17. R. Liikanen, Nanofiltration as a Refining Phase in Surface Water Treatment, HUT Laboratory of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Helsinki, 2006.
  18. S. Hong, M. Elimelech, Chemical and physical aspects of natural organic matter (NOM) fouling of nanofiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 132 (1997) 159–181.
  19. T. Speth, A. Guses, R. Summers, Evaluation of nanofiltration pretreatments for flux loss control, Desalination, 130 (2000) 31–44.
  20. L. Fan, J. Harris, F. Roddick, N. Booker, Influence of the characteristics of natural organic matter on the fouling of microfiltration membranes, Water Res., 35 (2001) 4455–4463.
  21. J. Lee, S. Lee, M. Jo, P. Park, C. Lee, J. Kwak, Effect of coagulation conditions on membrane filtration characteristics in coagulation–micro-filtration, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34 (2002) 3780–3788.
  22. N. Svenda, B. Gorczyca, Analysis of Nanofilter Fouling in Dual Membrane Plants Supplied by Sufrace Waters with High Dissolved Organic Carbon and Hardness, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, New Orleans, 2014.
  23. C. Jarusutthirak, S. Mattaraj, R. Jiraratananon, Influence of inorganic scalants and natural organic matter on nanofiltration membrane fouling, J. Membr. Sci., 287 (2007) 138–145.
  24. A. Schäfer, N. Andritsos, A. Karabelas, E. Hoek, R. Schneider, M. Nystrom, Fouling in Nanofiltration, Nanofiltration – Principles and Applications, Elsevier Science, New South Wales, 2004, pp. 169–239.
  25. C. Ong, P. Goh, W. Lau, N. Misdan, A. Ismai, Nanomaterials for biofouling and scaling mitigation of thin film composite membrane: a review, Desalination, 393 (2016) 2–15.
  26. W. Ang, A. Mohammad, A. Benamor, N. Hilal, C. Leo, Hybrid coagulation–NF membrane process for brackish water treatment: effect of antiscalant on water characteristics and membrane fouling, Desalination, 393 (2016) 144–150.
  27. J. Landaburu-Aguirre, R. García-Pacheco, S. Molina, L. Rodríguez-Sáez, J. Rabadán, E. García-Calvo, Fouling prevention, preparing for re-use and membrane recycling. Towards circular economy in RO desalination, Desalination, 393 (2016) 16–30.
  28. M. Papapetrou, A. Cipollina, U. Commare, G. Micale, G. Zaragoza, G. Kosmadakis, Assessment of methodologies and data used to calculate desalination costs, Desalination, 419 (2017) 8–19.
  29. K. Popov, G. Rudakova, V. Larchenko, M. Tusheva, S. Kamagurov, J. Dikareva, N. Kovaleva, A comparative performance evaluation of some novel (green) and traditional antiscalants in calcium sulfate scaling, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., (2016) 1–10.
  30. A. Seidel, M. Elimelech, Coupling between chemical and physical interactions in natural organic matter (NOM) fouling of nanofiltration membranes: implications for fouling control, J. Membr. Sci., 203 (2002) 245–255.
  31. W.Y. Ahn, A.G. Kalinichev, M.M. Clark, Effects of background cations on the fouling of polyethersulfone membranes by natural organic matter: experimental and molecular modeling study, J. Membr. Sci., 309 (2008) 128–140.
  32. S. Lee, W.S. Ang, M. Elimelech, Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrophilic organic matter: implications for water reuse, Desalination, 187 (2006) 313–321.
  33. W. Song, V. Ravindran, B.E. Koel, M. Pirbazari, Nanofiltration of natural organic matter with H2O2/UV pretreatment: fouling mitigation and membrane surface characterization, J. Membr. Sci., 241 (2004) 143–160.
  34. K. Katsoufidou, S. Yiantsios, A. Karabelas, Experimental study of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by sodium alginate and flux recovery by backwashing, J. Membr. Sci., 300 (2007) 137–146.
  35. A.S. Gorzalski, O. Coronell, Fouling of nanofiltration membranes in full-and bench-scale systems treating groundwater containing silica, J. Membr. Sci., 468 (2014) 349–359.
  36. C. Bellonaa, M. Marts, J. Drewes, The effect of organic membrane fouling on the properties and rejection characteristics of nanofiltration membranes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 74 (2010) 44–54.
  37. E. Gwon, M. Yu, H. Oh, Y. Ylee, Fouling characteristics of NF and RO operated for removal of dissolved matter from groundwater, Water Res., 37 (2003) 2989–2997.
  38. S. Jamal, S. Chang, H. Zhou, Filtration behaviour and fouling mechanisms of polysaccharides, Membranes, 4 (2014) 319–332.
  39. A. Rubia, M. Rodríguez, V. León, D. Prats, Removal of natural organic matter and THM formation potential by ultra- and nanofiltration of surface water, Water Res., 42 (2008) 714–72.
  40. Y. Hussain, M. Al-Saleh, S.S. Ar-Ratrout, The effect of active layer non-uniformity on the flux and compaction of TFC membranes, Desalination, 328 (2013) 17–23.
  41. Y. Hussain, M. Al-Saleh, A viscoelastic-based model for TFC membranes flux reduction during compaction, Desalination, 344 (2014) 362–370.
  42. C. Vishvanathan, B. Marsono, B. Basu, Removal of THMP by nanofiltration: effects of interference parameters, Water Res., 32 (1998) 3527–3538.
  43. Q. Li, M. Elimelech, Organic fouling and chemical cleaning of nanofiltration membranes: measurements and mechanisms, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38 (2004) 4683–4693.
  44. M. Karime, S. Bouguechab, B. Hamrounia, RO membrane autopsy of Zarzis brackish water desalination plant, Desalination, 220 (2008) 258–266.
  45. K. Boussu, B.V.D. Bruggen, A. Volodin, J. Snauwaert, C.V. Haesendonck, C. Vandecasteele, Roughness and hydrophobicity studies of nanofiltration membranes using different modes of AFM, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 286 (2005) 632–638.
  46. E. Vrijenhoek, S. Hong, M. Elimelech, Influence of membrane surface properties on initial rate of colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 188 (2001) 115–128.
  47. C. Hobbs, J. Taylor, S. Hong, Effect of surface roughness on fouling of RO and NF membranes during filtration of a high organic surficial groundwater, J. Water Supply Res. Technol. AQUA, 55 (2006) 559–570.
  48. M. Hirose, H. Ito, Y. Kamiyama, Effect of skin layer surface structures on the flux behaviour of RO membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 121 (1996) 209–215.
  49. E. Hoek, S. Bhattacharjee, M. Elimelech, Effect of membrane surface roughness on colloid-membrane DLVO interactions, Langmuir, 19 (2003) 4836–4847.
  50. C. Jarusutthirak, S. Mattaraj, R. Jiraratananon, Factors affecting nanofiltration performances in natural organic matter rejection and flux decline, Sep. Purif. Technol., 58 2007 68–75.
  51. A. Abdelrasoul, H. Doan, A. Lohi, A mechanistic model for ultrafiltration membrane fouling by latex, J. Membr. Sci., 433 (2013) 88–99.
  52. E. Iritani, N. Katagiri, Developments of blocking filtration model in membrane filtration, Kona Powder Part. J., 33 (2016) 179–202.
  53. E. Garravanda, C.N. Mulligan, C.B. Laflamme, G. Clairet, Investigation of the fouling effect on a commercial semipermeable membrane in the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process, Sep. Purif. Technol., 193 (2017) 81–90.
  54. Y. Lin, Effects of organic, biological and colloidal fouling on the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 542 (2017) 342–351.
  55. M.A. Zazouli, S. Nasseri, M. Ulbricht, Fouling effects of humic and alginic acids in nanofiltration and influence of solution composition, Desalination, 250 (2010) 688–692.
  56. Y. Xin, M.W. Bligh, A.S. Kinsela, Y. Wang, T.D. Waite, Calciummediated polysaccharide gel formation and breakage: Impact on membrane foulant hydraulic properties, J. Membr. Sci., 475 (2015) 395–405.
  57. D. Filmtec, Dow Water & Process Solutions, 01 December 2016. [Online]. Available: path=liquidseps/pdfs/noreg/609-50106.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc.
  58. S. Yüksel, N. Kabay, M. Yüksel, Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration(NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, J. Hazard. Mater., 263 (2013) 307–310.
  59. A. Azaïs, J. Mendret, S. Gassara, E. Petit, A. Deratani, S. Brosillon, Nanofiltration for wastewater reuse: counteractive effects of fouling and matrice on the rejection of pharmaceutical active compounds, Sep. Purif. Technol., 133 (2014) 313–327.
  60. K. Listiarini, W. Chun, D.D. Sun, J.O. Leckie, Fouling mechanism and resistance analyses of systems containing sodium alginate, calcium, alum and their combination in dead-end fouling of nanofiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 344 (2009) 244–251.
  61. N. Porcelli, S. Judd, Chemical cleaning of potable water membranes: a review, Sep. Purif. Technol., 71 (2008) 137–143.
  62. S. Lee, J. Cho, M. Elimelech, A novel method for investigating the influence of feed water recovery on colloidal and NOM fouling of RO and NF membranes, Environ. Eng. Sci., 22 (2005) 496–509.
  63. M. Mamun, S. Bhattacharjee, D. Pernitsky, M. Sadrzadeh, Colloidal fouling of nanofiltration membranes: development of a standard operating procedure, Membranes, 7 (2017) 1–19.
  64. I. Moran, B. Gorczyca, Mechanism of Fouling on Four Different NF Membranes, American Membrane Technology Association, San Antonio, 2016.