1. B. Peñate, L. Garcia-Rodriguez, Current trends and future prospects in the design of seawater reverse osmosis desalination technology, Desalination, 284 (2012) 1–8.
  2. K.P. Lee, T.C. Arnot, D. Mattia, A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination—development to date and future potential, J. Membr. Sci., 370 (2011) 1–22.
  3. N. Ghaffour, T.M. Missimer, G.L. Amy, Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: current and future challenges for better supply sustainability, Desalination, 309 (2013) 197–207.
  4. R.W. Baker, Membrane Technology and Applications, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
  5. E.M.V. Hoek, M. Elimelech, Cake-enhanced concentration polarization: a new fouling mechanism for salt-rejecting membranes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37 (2003) 5581–5588.
  6. S. Lee, C.H. Lee, Scale formation in NF/RO: mechanism and control, Water Sci. Technol., 51 (2005) 267–275.
  7. M. Herzberg, M. Elimelech, Biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes: role of biofilm-enhanced osmotic pressure, J. Membr. Sci., 295 (2007) 11–20.
  8. H. Li, H. Xia, Y. Mei, Modeling organic fouling of reverse osmosis membrane: from adsorption to fouling layer formation, Desalination, 386 (2016) 25–31.
  9. H.-C. Flemming, Reverse osmosis membrane biofouling, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 14 (1997) 382–391.
  10. L. Henthorne, B. Boysen, State-of-the-art of reverses osmosis desalination pretreatment, Desalination, 356 (2015) 129–139.
  11. O.M. Lee, H.Y. Kim, W. Park, T.H. Kim, S. Yu, A comparative study of disinfection efficiency and regrowth control of microorganisms in secondary wastewater effluent using UV, ozone, and ionizing irradiation process, J. Hazard. Mater., 295 (2015) 201–208.
  12. T.Y. Zhang, B. Xu, C.Y. Hu, Y.L. Lin, L. Lin, T. Ye, F.X. Tian, A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes, Water Res., 68 (2015) 394–403.
  13. K. Song, M. Mohseni, F. Taghipour, Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: a review, Water Res., 94 (2016) 341–349.
  14. C. Fritzmann, J. Löwenberg, T. Wintgens, T. Melin, State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination, Desalination, 216 (2007) 1–76.
  15. D. Kim, S. Jung, J. Sohn, H. Kim, S. Lee, Biocide application for controlling biofouling of SWRO membranes – an overview, Desalination, 238 (2009) 43–52.
  16. J.A. Redondo, I. Lomax, Y2K generation FILMTEC* RO membranes with new pretreatment techniques to treat water with high fouling potential: summary of experience, Desalination, 136 (2001) 287–306.
  17. E. Dionisio-Ruiz, J. Pérez, F. Plaza, G. Garralón, A. Garralón, M.A. Gómez, Biofilm evolution in the pretreatment line of a reverse osmosis system, Desalination, 338 (2014) 33–38.
  18. M.O. Saeed, Effect of dechlorination point location and residual chlorine on biofouling in a seawater reverse osmosis plant, Desalination, 143 (2002) 229–235.
  19. J.E. Cadotte, R.J. Petersen, R.E. Larson, E.E. Erickson, A new thin-film composite seawater reverse osmosis membrane, Desalination, 32 (1980) 25–32.
  20. N. Misdan, W.J. Lau, A.F. Ismail, Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination by thin-film composite membrane - current development, challenges and future prospects, Desalination, 287 (2012) 228–237.
  21. T. Kawaguchi, H. Tamura, Chlorine-resistant membrane for reverse osmosis. I. Correlation between chemical structures and chlorine resistance of polyamides, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 29 (1984) 3359–3367.
  22. J. Glater, S.-k. Hong, M. Elimelech, The search for a chlorineresistant reverse osmosis membrane, Desalination, 95 (1994) 325–345.
  23. M. Ohno, C. Manalo, L. Rossetto, T. Okuda, S. Nakai, W. Nishijima, Effect of coexisting metal ions on the degradation of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane by hypochlorite treatment, Desalination, 381 (2016) 126–134.
  24. J. Kucera, Reverse Osmosis Industrial Processes and Applications, 2nd ed., 2015, Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, MA.
  25. S. Jiang, Y. Li, B.P. Ladewig, A review of reverse osmosis membrane fouling and control strategies, Sci. Total Environ., 59 (2017) 567–583.
  26. J. Xu, Z. Wang, L. Yu, J. Wang, S. Wang, A novel reverse osmosis membrane with regenerable anti-biofouling and chlorine resistant properties, J. Membr. Sci., 435 (2013) 80–91.
  27. A. Matin, Z. Khan, K.K. Gleason, M. Khaled, S.M.J. Zaidi, A. Khalil, P. Moni, R. Yang, Surface-modified reverse osmosis membranes applying a copolymer film to reduce adhesion of bacteria as a strategy for biofouling control, Sep. Purif. Technol., 124 (2014) 117–123.
  28. L. He, L.F. Dumée, C. Feng, L. Velleman, R. Reis, F. She, W. Gao, L. Kong, Promoted water transport across graphene oxide-poly(amide) thin film composite membranes and their antibacterial activity, Desalination, 365 (2015) 126–135.
  29. T. Shintani, H. Matsuyama, N. Kurata, Development of a chlorine-resistant polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, Desalination, 207 (2007) 340–348.
  30. P.R. Buch, D. Jagan Mohan, A.V.R. Reddy, Preparation, characterization and chlorine stability of aromatic–cycloaliphatic polyamide thin film composite membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 309 (2008) 36–44.
  31. S. Yu, M. Liu, Z. Lü, Y. Zhou, C. Gao, Aromatic-cycloaliphatic polyamide thin-film composite membrane with improved chlorine resistance prepared from m-phenylenediamine-4-methyl and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarbonyl chloride, J. Membr. Sci., 344 (2009) 155–164.
  32. Y.-H. La, R. Sooriyakumaran, D.C. Miller, M. Fujiwara, Y. Terui, K. Yamanaka, B.D. McCloskey, B.D. Freeman, R.D. Allen, Novel thin film composite membrane containing ionizable hydrophobes: pH-dependent reverse osmosis behavior and improved chlorine resistance, J. Mater. Chem., 20 (2010) 4615–4620.
  33. D.H. Shin, N. Kim, Y.T. Lee, Modification to the polyamide TFC RO membranes for improvement of chlorine-resistance, J. Membr. Sci., 376 (2011) 302–311.
  34. Y.-N. Kwon, S. Hong, H. Choi, T. Tak, Surface modification of a polyamide reverse osmosis membrane for chlorine resistance improvement, J. Membr. Sci., 415–416 (2012) 192–198.
  35. X. Wei, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, S. Wang, Surface modification of commercial aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes by graft polymerization of 3-allyl-5,5- dimethylhydantoin, J. Membr. Sci., 351 (2010) 222–233.
  36. Z. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Wang, Enhancing chlorine resistances and anti-biofouling properties of commercial aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes by grafting 3-allyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin and N,N’- methylenebis(acrylamide), Desalination, 309 (2013) 187–196.
  37. W. Falath, A. Sabir, K.I. Jacob, Novel reverse osmosis membranes composed of modified PVA/Gum Arabic conjugates: biofouling mitigation and chlorine resistance enhancement, Carbohydr. Polym., 155 (2017) 28–39.
  38. H. Shemer, R. Semiat, Impact of halogen-based disinfectants in seawater on polyamide RO membranes, Desalination, 273 (2011) 179–183.
  39. S.M. Acharya, F. Kurisu, I. Kasuga, H. Furumail, Chlorine dose determines bacterial community structure of subsequent regrowth in reclaimed water, J. Water Environ. Technol., 14 (2016) 15–24.
  40. N. Fujiwara, H. Matsuyama, Elimination of biological fouling in seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants, Desalination, 227 (2008) 295–305.
  41. M. Ohno, C. Manalo, T. Okuda, S. Nakai, W. Nishijima, Control of Biofilm Formation and Inorganic Particle Accumulation on Reverse Osmosis Membrane by Hypochlorite Washing, 18th International Conference on Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants Proceedings, Vol. 18, 2016, Part II, pp. 233–241.
  42. C.V. Manalo, M. Ohno, T. Okuda, S. Nakai, W. Nishijima, Rapid novel test for the determination of biofouling potential on reverse osmosis membranes, Water Sci. Technol., 73 (2016) 2978–2985.
  43. H. Sanawar, A. Siddiqui, Sz.S. Bucs, N.M. Farhat, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, J.C. Kruithof, J.S. Vrouwenvelder, Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling in reverse osmosis membrane systems, Desal. Wat. Treat., 97 (2017) 72–78.
  44. H. Ohya, Y. Negishi, K. Matsui, K. Kamoto, H. Inoue, Deterioration of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes with sodium hypochlorite - analysis of the mechanisms, Chem. Eng. Paper, 7 (1981) 272–277. (In Japanese).
  45. J.S. Baker, L.Y. Dudley, Biofouling in membrane systems – a review, Desalination, 118 (1998) 81–90.
  46. J. Mansouri, S. Harrisson, V. Chen, Strategies for controlling biofouling in membrane filtration systems: challenges and opportunities, J. Mater. Chem., 20 (2010) 4567–4586.
  47. C.A.C. van de Lisdonk, J.A.M. van Paassen, J.C. Schippers, Monitoring scaling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane systems, Desalination, 132 (2000) 101–108.
  48. A. Antony, J.H. Low, S. Gray, A.E. Childress, P. Le-Clech, G. Leslie, Scale formation and control in high pressure membrane water treatment systems: a review, J. Membr. Sci., 383 (2011) 1–16.
  49. R.Y. Ning, T.L. Troyer, Colloidal fouling of RO membranes following MF/UF in the reclamation of municipal wastewater, Desalination, 208 (2007) 232–237.
  50. C.R. Bartels, M. Wilf, K. Andes, J. Iong, Design consideration for wastewater treatment by reverse osmosis, Water Sci. Technol., 51 (2005) 473–482.
  51. F. Tang, H.Y. Hu, L.J. Sun, Y.X. Sun, N. Shi, J.C. Crittenden, Fouling characteristics of reverse osmosis membranes at different positions of a full-scale plant for municipal wastewater reclamation, Water Res., 90 (2016) 329–336.
  52. T. Yu, L. Meng, Q.B. Zhao, Y. Shi, H.Y. Hu, Y. Lu, Effects of chemical cleaning on RO membrane inorganic, organic and microbial foulant removal in a full-scale plant for municipal wastewater reclamation, Water Res., 113 (2017) 1–10.
  53. M. Deborde, U. von Gunten, Reactions of chlorine with inorganic and organic compounds during wáter treatment – kinetics and mechanisms: a critical review, Water Res., 42 (2008) 13–51.
  54. S. Strugholtz, K. Sundaramoorthy, S. Panglisch, A. Lerch, A. Brügger, R. Gimbel, Evaluation of the performance of different chemicals for cleaning capillary membranes, Desalination, 179 (2005) 191–202.
  55. M. Al-Ahmad, F.A. Abdel Aleem, A. Mutiri, A. Ubaisy, Biofouling in RO membrane systems Part I: fundamentals and control, Desalination, 132 (2000) 173–179.