1. OECD, OECD Annual Report, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2008.
  2. A. Purnama, H.H. Al-Barwani, Spreading of brine waste discharges into the Gulf of Oman, Desalination, 195 (2006) 26–31.
  3. S. Sethi, S. Walker, J. Drewes, P. Xu, Existing and emerging concentrate minimization and disposal practices for membrane systems, Florida Water Resour. J., 58 (2006) 38–48.
  4. W. Tang, H.Y. Ng, Concentration of brine by forward osmosis: performance and influence of membrane structure, Desalination, 224 (2008) 143–153.
  5. B.V. Bruggen, L. Lejon, C. Vandecasteele, Reuse, treatment, and discharge of the concentrate of pressure-driven membrane processes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37 (2003) 3733–3738.
  6. Leong, J.J. Tan, J. Charrois, B.P. Ladewig, Review of high recovery concentrate management options, Desal. Wat. Treat., 52 (2014) 7609–7627.
  7. W.T. Bates, R. Cuozzo, Integrated Membrane Systems, Hydranautics, 2000,
  8. K.S. Spiegler, Y.M. El-Sayed, A Desalination Primer, Balaban Desalination Publications, Italy, 1994.
  9. M. Ahmad, Assessment of Freeing Desalination Technologies, Ph.D Thesis, Swansea University, 2012.
  10. Emirates 24/7 Report, GCC to Increase Desalination Capacity 40% by 2020. 2015.
  11. M.A. Dawoud, M.M. Al Mulla, Environmental impacts of seawater desalination: Arabian Gulf case study, Int. J. Environ. Sustain., 1 (2012) 22–37.
  12. R.A.I. Bashitialshaaer, K.M. Persson, M. Aljaradin, Estimated future salinity in the Arabian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea consequences of brine discharge from desalination, Int. J. Acad. Res., 3 (2011) 133–140.
  13. State of Kuwait Central Statistical Bureau, Ministry of Electricity and Water Kuwait Statistical Review, Edition 40, 2017.
  14. M. Tedesco, A. Cipollina, A. Tamburini, G. Micale, J. Helsen, M. Papapetrou, REA Power: use of desalination brine for power production through reverse electrodialysis, Desal. Wat. Treat., 53 (2015) 3161–3169.
  15. A. Cipollina, A. Misseri, G.D. Staiti, A. Galia, G. Micale, O. Scialdone, Integrated production of fresh water, sea salt and magnesium from sea water, Desal. Wat. Treat., 49 (2012) 390–403.
  16. M. Latorre, Environmental impact of brine disposal on Posidonia seagrasses, Desalination, 182 (2005) 517–524.
  17. T. Peters, D. Pintó, Seawater intake and pre-treatment/brine discharge - environmental issues, Desalination, 221 (2008) 576-584.
  18. T. Younos, Environmental issues of desalination, J. Contemp. Water Res. Educ., 132 (2005) 11–18.
  19. P. Glueckstern, M. Priel, Optimized brackish water desalination plants with minimum impact on the environment, Desalination, 108 (1996) 19.
  20. Afrasiabi, Nima, E. Shahbazali, RO brine treatment and disposal methods, Desal. Wat. Treat., 35 (2011) 39–53.
  21. Mericq, Jean-Pierre, S. Laborie, C. Cabassud, Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines, Water Res., 44 (2010) 5260–5273.
  22. C.R. Martinetti, A.E. Childress, T.Y. Cath, High recovery of concentrated RO brines using forward osmosis and membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 331 (2009) 31–39.
  23. N. Hilal, H. A1-Zoubi, N.A. Darwish, A.W. Mohammad, M. Abu Arabi, A comprehensive review of nanofiltration membranes: treatment, pretreatment, modelling, and atomic force microscopy, Desalination, 170 (2004) 281−308.
  24. Y. Zhang, B. Van der Bruggen, L. Pinoy, B. Meesschaert, Separation of nutrient ions and organic compounds from salts in RO concentrates by standard and monovalent selective ion exchange membranes used in electro dialysis, J. Membr. Sci., 332 (2009) 104–112.
  25. E. Korngold, L. Aronov, N. Daltrophe, Electrodialysis of brine solutions discharged from an RO plant, Desalination, 242 (2009) 215–227.
  26. M. Turek, J. Was, P. Dydo, Brackish water desalination in RO– single pass EDR system, Desal. Wat. Treat., 7 (2009) 263–266.
  27. G. Johnson, L. Stowell, M. Monroe, VSEP Treatment of RO Reject from Brackish Well Water: a Comparison of Conventional Treatment Methods and VSEP, a Vibrating Membrane Filtration System, El Paso Desalination Conference, El Paso Texas, USA, 2006.
  28. J.T. Kepke, L. Foster, J. Cesca, D. McCann, Hold the Salt: Innovative Treatment of RO Concentrate, 2nd International Salinity Forum, Adelaide, Australia, 2008.
  29. G.J.G. Juby, A. Zacheis, W. Shih, P. Ravishanker, B. Mortazavi, M.D. Nusser, Evaluation and Selection of Available Processes for a Zero-Liquid Discharge System for the Perris, California, Ground Water Basin, Report, 149, Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program, Denver, 2008.
  30. A.P.R. Koppol, M.J. Bagajewicz, B.J. Dericks, M.J. Savelski, On zero water discharge solutions in the process industry, Adv. Environ. Res., 8 (2004) 151–171.
  31. G. Bazedi, R.S. Ettouney, S.R. Tewfik, M.H. Sorour, A.A. El-Rifai, Salt recovery from brine generated by large-scale seawater desalination plants, Desal. Wat. Treat., 52 (2014) 4689–4697.
  32. A. Neilly, V. Jegatheesan, L. Shu, Evaluating the potential for zero discharge from reverse osmosis desalination using integrated processes-a review, Desal. Wat. Treat., 11 (2009) 58–65.
  33. J. Morillo, J. Usero, D. Rosadoa, H. Bakouri, A. Riaza, F.J. Bernaola, Comparative study of brine management technologies for desalination plants, Desalination, 336 (2014) 32–49.
  34. D.H. Kim, A review of desalting process techniques and economic analysis of the recovery of salts from retentates, Desalination, 270 (2011) 1–8.
  35. A. Shahmansouri, J. Min, L. Jin, Christopher Bellona, Feasibility of extracting valuable minerals from desalination concentrate: a comprehensive literature review, J. Cleaner Prod., 100 (2015) 4–16.
  36. J.L. Mero, The Mineral Resources of the Sea, Elsevier, 1965.
  37. P. Loganathan, G. Naidu, S. Vigneswaran, Mining valuable minerals from seawater: a critical review, Environ. Sci. Water Res. Technol., 3 (2017) 37–53.
  38. M. Ahmed, A. Arakel, D. Hoey, M.R. Thumarukudy, M.F.A. Goosen, M. Al-Haddabi, A. Al-Belushi, Feasibility of salt production from inland RO desalination plant reject brine: a case study, Desalination, 158 (2003) 109–117.
  39. A.V. Arakel, M. Mickley, L. Stapleton, Salinity Solutions: from ‘Waste Disposal’ to ‘Resource Recovery’, Paper Presented at the 1st National Salinity Engineering Conference, November 9–12, Burswood International Resort, Perth, Western Australia, 2004.
  40. U. Bardi, Extracting minerals from seawater: an energy analysis, Sustainability, 2 (2010) 980–992.
  41. H. Kasedde, Towards the Improvement of Salt Precipitation from Lake Katwe Raw Materials in Uganda, Doctoral Thesis, 2016, pp. 1–69.
  42. E. Drioli, A. Ali, C.A. Quist-Jensen, F. Macedonio, Water, Energy and Minerals from the Sea, Proceedings of the World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research, ICC Jeju, Jeju Island, Korea, August 28 – September 1, 2016.
  43. E. Drioli, A. Ali, F. Macedonio, Membrane Operations for Process Intensification in Desalination, Appl. Sci., 7 (2017) 1–14.
  44. N.F. Attia, M. Jawad, A. Al-Saffar, The integration of desalination plants and mineral production, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2015) 21201–21210.
  45. J.L. Mero, Chapter III Minerals from Sea Water, In: Elsevier Oceanography Series 1, 1965, pp. 24–52.
  46. C.A. Quist-Jensen, F. Macedonio, E. Drioli, Integrated membrane desalination systems with membrane crystallization units for resource recovery: a new approach for mining from the sea, Crystals, 6 (2016) 1–13.
  47. L. Irving, The precipitation of calcium and magnesium from sea water, J. Marine Biol. Assoc., 14 (1926) 441–446.
  48. C. Pujiastuti, K. Sumada, Y Ngatilah, P. Hadi, Removal of Mg2+, K+, SO42- Ions from Seawater by Precipitation Method, MATEC Web Conference Proceedings, Vol. 58, 2016, p. 1022.
  49. General Chemistry, Wiki Books, Open Books for an Open World. Available at:
  50. D. Janowitz, A. Mansour, S. Yüce, Recovery of Magnesium Oxide from Seawater Concentrate, Aachener Membran Koloquium (AMK), Aachen, November, 2018.
  51. W. Hamer, G.D. Pinching, S.F. Acree, pH standards at various temperatures: aqueous solutions of acid potassium phthalate, J. Res. Nat. Bureau Standards, 36 (1946) 47–62.
  52. L. Shu, I.J. Obagbemib, S. Liyanaarachchia, D. Navaratna, Why does pH increase with CaCl2 as draw solution during forward osmosis filtration, Process Saf. Environ. Protect., 104 (2016) 465–471.
  53. A.W. Rudie, P.W. Hart, Fundamental Chemistry of Precipitation and Mineral Scale Formation, Proc. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. Philadelphia, PA, August 28–31, 2005
  54. D.W. Jeppson, J.L. Ballif, W.W. Yuan, B.E. Chou, Lithium Literature Review: Lithium’s Properties And Interactions, Report, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, HEDLTME 78-15 UC-20, 1978
  55. O. Lopez, P. Zuddas, D. Faivre, The influence of temperature and seawater composition on calcite crystal growth mechanisms and kinetics: implications for Mg incorporation in calcite lattice, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73 (2009) 337–347.
  56. P. Remy, H. Muhr, E. Plasari, I. Ouerdiane, Removal of boron from wastewater by precipitation of a sparingly soluble salt, Environ. Progr., 24 (2005) 105–110.
  57. V. Kochkodan, N.B. Darwish, N. Hilal, The Chemistry of Boron in Water, Elsevier, 2015, pp. 35–62.
  58. T. Tong, M. Elimelech, The global rise of zero liquid discharge for wastewater management: drivers, technologies, and future directions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50 (2016) 6846–6855.
  59. H.Z. Shafi, Faizur-Rahman, S.M. Zubair, A. Matin, O. Alnoor, F. Kafiah, A. Mahmood, Concentrate management technologies for desalination processes leading to zero liquid discharge: technologies, recent trends and future outlook, Desal. Wat. Treat., 105 (2018) 92–118.