1. Y. Peng, Y. Sui, Compatibility research on PVC/PVB blended membranes, Desalination, 196 (2006) 13–21.
  2. J. Xu, Z.-L. Xu, Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes prepared from PVC/additives/solvent, J. Membr. Sci., 208 (2002) 203–212.
  3. E. Demirel, B. Zhang, M. Papakyriakou, S. Xia, Y. Chen, Fe2O3 nanocomposite PVC membrane with enhanced properties and separation performance, J. Membr. Sci., 529 (2017) 170–184.
  4. H. Wu, T. Li, B. Liu, C. Chen, S. Wang, J.C. Crittenden, Blended PVC/PVC-g-PEGMA ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced performance and antifouling properties, Appl. Surf. Sci., 455 (2018) 987–996.
  5. B. Liu, C. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Crittenden, Y. Chen, Low-cost antifouling PVC ultrafiltration membrane fabrication with Pluronic F 127: Effect of additives on properties and performance, Desalination, 307 (2012) 26–33.
  6. Z. Zhou, S. Rajabzadeh, A. Rajjak Shaikh, Y. Kakihana, T. Ishigami, R. Sano, H. Matsuyama, Preparation and characterization of antifouling poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 498 (2016) 414–422.
  7. C. Güell, R.H. Davis, Membrane fouling during microfiltration of protein mixtures, J. Membr. Sci., 119 (1996) 269–284.
  8. A. Akthakul, R.F. Salinaro, A.M. Mayes, Antifouling polymer membranes with subnanometer size selectivity, Macromolecules, 37 (2004) 7663–7668.
  9. P. Wang, K.L. Tan, E.T. Kang, K.G. Neoh, Antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microporous membranes prepared via plasma-induced surface grafting of poly(ethylene glycol), J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 16 (2002) 111–127.
  10. F. Liu, C.H. Du, B.K. Zhu, Y.Y. Xu, Surface immobilization of polymer brushes onto porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane by electron beam to improve the hydrophilicity and fouling resistance, Polymer, 48 (2007) 2910–2918.
  11. S.J. Oh, N. Kim, Y.T. Lee, Preparation and characterization of PVDF/TiO2 organic–inorganic composite membranes for fouling resistance improvement, J. Membr. Sci., 345 (2009) 13–20.
  12. J.-F. Li, Z.-L. Xu, H. Yang, L.-Y. Yu, M. Liu, Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface morphology and performance of microporous PES membrane, Appl. Surf. Sci., 255 (2009) 4725–4732.
  13. G. Wu, S. Gan, L. Cui, Y. Xu, Preparation and characterization of PES/TiO2 composite membranes, Appl. Surf. Sci., 254 (2008) 7080–7086.
  14. V. Vatanpour, S.S. Madaeni, A.R. Khataee, E. Salehi, S. Zinadini, H.A. Monfared, TiO2 embedded mixed matrix PES nanocomposite membranes: Influence of different sizes and types of nanoparticles on antifouling and performance, Desalination, 292 (2012) 19–29.
  15. X. Cao, J. Ma, X. Shi, Z. Ren, Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle size on the performance of PVDF membrane, Appl. Surf. Sci., 253 (2006) 2003–2010.
  16. L. Shen, X. Bian, X. Lu, L. Shi, Z. Liu, L. Chen, Z. Hou, K. Fan, Preparation and characterization of ZnO/polyethersulfone (PES) hybrid membranes, Desalination, 293 (2012) 21–29.
  17. H. Rabiee, V. Vatanpour, M.H.D.A. Farahani, H. Zarrabi, Improvement in flux and antifouling properties of PVC ultrafiltration membranes by incorporation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, Sep. Purif. Technol., 156 (2015) 299–310.
  18. N. Maximous, G. Nakhla, W. Wan, K. Wong, Preparation, characterization and performance of Al2O3/PES membrane for wastewater filtration, J. Membr. Sci., 341 (2009) 67–75.
  19. X. Liu, Y. Peng, S. Ji, A new method to prepare organic-inorganic hybrid membranes, Desalination, 221 (2008) 376–382.
  20. J.-n. Shen, H.-m. Ruan, L.-g. Wu, C.-j. Gao, Preparation and characterization of PES–SiO2 organic–inorganic composite ultrafiltration membrane for raw water pretreatment, Chem. Eng. J., 168 (2011) 1272–1278.
  21. J. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Shan, B. Zhou, Y. Li, B. Li, J. Niu, X. Qian, Synergetic effects of oxidized carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide on fouling control and anti-fouling mechanism of polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 448 (2013) 81–92.
  22. V. Vatanpour, S.S. Madaeni, R. Moradian, S. Zinadini, B. Astinchap, Novel antibifouling nanofiltration polyethersulfone membrane fabricated from embedding TiO2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 90 (2012) 69–82.
  23. V. Vatanpour, M. Esmaeili, M.H.D.A. Farahani, Fouling reduction and retention increment of polyethersulfone nanofiltration membranes embedded by amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, J. Membr. Sci., 466 (2014) 70–81.
  24. T.A. Agbaje, S. Al-Gharabli, M.O. Mavukkandy, J. Kujawa, H.A. Arafat, PVDF/magnetite blend membranes for enhanced flux and salt rejection in membrane distillation, Desalination, 436 (2018) 69–80.
  25. M.R. Mehrnia, M. Homayoonfal, Fouling mitigation behavior of magnetic responsive nanocomposite membranes in a magnetic membrane bioreactor, J. Membr. Sci., 520 (2016) 881–894.
  26. P. Daraei, S.S. Madaeni, N. Ghaemi, M.A. Khadivi, B. Astinchap, R. Moradian, Fouling resistant mixed matrix polyethersulfone membranes blended with magnetic nanoparticles: Study of magnetic field induced casting, Sep. Purif. Technol., 109 (2013) 111–121.
  27. B. Deng, M. Yu, X. Yang, B. Zhang, L. Li, L. Xie, J. Li, X. Lu, Antifouling microfiltration membranes prepared from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder synthesized via pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization, J. Membr. Sci., 350 (2010) 252–258.
  28. H.P. Klug, L.E. Alexander, X-ray diffraction procedures: for polycrystalline and amorphous materials, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974.
  29. A.K. Shukla, J. Alam, M. Alhoshan, L.A. Dass, M.R. Muthumareeswaran, Development of a nanocomposite ultrafiltration membrane based on polyphenylsulfone blended with graphene oxide, Sci. Rep., 7 (2017) 41976.
  30. S. Qiu, L. Wu, X. Pan, L. Zhang, H. Chen, C. Gao, Preparation and properties of functionalized carbon nanotube/PSF blend ultrafiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 342 (2009) 165–172.
  31. H. Wu, B. Tang, P. Wu, Novel ultrafiltration membranes prepared from a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite, J. Membr. Sci., 362 (2010) 374–383.
  32. J. Lv, G. Zhang, H. Zhang, F. Yang, Exploration of permeability and antifouling performance on modified cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane with cellulose nanocrystals, Carbohydr. Polym., 174 (2017) 190–199.