1. D.M. Stevens, J.Y. Shu, M. Reichert, A. Roy, Next-generation nanoporous materials: progress and prospects for reverse osmosis and nanofiltration, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 56 (2017) 10526–10551.
  2. W.K. Al-Zubari, In: The Water, Energy, and Food Security Nexus in the Arab Region, Springer, 2016, pp. 2–4.
  3. S.K. Sikdar, A. Criscuoli, In: Sustainable Membrane Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Springer, 2017, pp. 4.
  4. D. Li, H. Wang, In: Functional Nanostructured Materials and Membranes for Water Treatment, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013, p. 163.
  5. B.S. Lalia, V. Kochkodan, R. Hashaikeh, N. Hilal, A review on membrane fabrication: structure, properties and performance relationship, Desalination, 326 (2013) 77–95.
  6. J., Mulder, Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, p. 86.
  7. A. Morsy, S. Ebrahim, E. Kenawy, T. Abdel-Fattah, S. Kandil, Grafted cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane using 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for water desalination, Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply, 16 (2016) 1046–1056.
  8. R. Matz, The structure of cellulose acetate membranes 1. The development of porous structures in anisotropic membranes, Desalination, 10 (1972) 1–15.
  9. H. Wu, B. Tang, P. Wu, Optimizing polyamide thin film composite membrane covalently bonded with modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles, J. Membr. Sci., 428 (2013) 341–348.
  10. J. Kucera, Reverse Osmosis Design, Processes, and Applications for Engineers. 2010. Co-published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey, and Scrivener Publishing LLC, Salem, Massachusetts, p. 23.
  11. A. Sabir, A. Islam, M. Shafiq, A. Shafeeq, M.T.Z. Butt, N.M. Ahmad, K. Sanaullah, T. Jamil, Novel polymer matrix composite membrane doped with fumed silica particles for reverse osmosis desalination, Desalination, 368 (2015) 159–170.
  12. V.K. Gupta, D. Pathania, P. Singh, B. S. Rathore, P. Chauhanc, Cellulose acetate–zirconium (IV) phosphate nano-composite with enhanced photo-catalytic activity, Carbohydr. Polym., 95 (2013) 434–440.
  13. M. Ali, M. Zafar, T. Jamil, M. Taqi, Z. Buttb, Influence of glycol additives on the structure and performance of cellulose acetate/zinc oxide blend membranes, Desalination, 270 (2011) 98–104.
  14. F.S. Dehkordi, M. Pakizeh, M.N. Mahboub, Properties and ultrafiltration efficiency of cellulose acetate/organically modified Mt (CA/OMMt) nanocomposite membrane for humic acid removal, Appl. Clay Sci., 105 (2015) 178–185.
  15. T.D. Kusworo, Budiyono, A.I. Wibowo, G.D. Harjanto, A.D. Yudisthira, F.B. Iswanto, Cellulose acetate membrane with improved perm-selectivity through modification dope composition and solvent evaporation for water softening, Res. J. Appl. Sci., Eng. Technol., 7 (2014) 3852–3859.
  16. H. Choi, S.H. Yoon, M. Son, E. Celik, H. Park, H. Choi, Efficacy of synthesis conditions on functionalized carbon nanotube blended cellulose acetate membrane for desalination. Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 7545–7554.
  17. A.P. Duarte, M.T. Cidade, J.C. Bordado, Cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes: optimization of the composition, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 100 (2006) 4052–4058.
  18. M.A. Frommer, R.M. Messalem, Mechanism of membrane formation. VI. Convective flows and large void formation during membrane precipitation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev, 12 (1973) 328–333.
  19. D.M. Koenhen, M.H.V. Mulder, C.A. Smolders, Phase separation phenomena during the formation of asymmetric membranes, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 21 (1977) 199–215.
  20. G.R. Guillen, G.Z. Ramon, H.P. Kavehpour, R.B. Kaner, E.M.V. Hoek, Direct microscopic observation of membrane formation by nonsolvent induced phase separation, J. Membr. Sci., 431 (2013) 212–220.
  21. Z. Li, C. Jiang, Investigation of the dynamics of poly (ether sulfone) membrane formation by immersion precipitation. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 43 (2005) 498–510.
  22. I. Syahbanu, B. Piluharto, S. Khairi, Sudarko, Effect of Evaporation Time on Separation Performance of Polysulfone/Cellulose Acetate (PSF/CA) Membrane. in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, IOP Publishing, Conference 1, Vol. 299.
  23. E. Saljoughi, T. Mohammadi, Cellulose acetate (CA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend asymmetric membranes: preparation, morphology and performance, Desalination, 249 (2009) 850–854.
  24. S. Waheed, A. Ahmad, S.M. Khan, S. e-Gul, T. Jamil, A. Islam, T. Hussain, Synthesis, characterization, permeation and antibacterial properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes modified with chitosan, Desalination, 351 (2014) 59–69.
  25. S.H. Woo, J. Park, B.R. Min, Relationship between permeate flux and surface roughness of membranes with similar water contact angle values, Sep. Purif. Technol., 146 (2015) 187–191.
  26. H. Rusli, S. Gandasasmita, M.B. Amran, Cellulose acetate–silica fume membrane: characterization and application for separation of starch and maltose, Iran. Polym. J., 22 (2013) 335–340.
  27. P.L.T. Brian, Concentration Polar zation in Reverse Osmosis Desalination with Variable Flux and Incomplete Salt Rejection, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 4 (1965) 439–445.
  28. C. Reid, E. Breton, Water and ion flow across cellulosic membranes, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1 (1959) 133–143.
  29. G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Srinivasna, D. Mohana, M. Rajendrana, Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies on cellulose acetate membranes with additive. Eur. Polym. J., 40 (2004) 2153–2159.
  30. S. Loeb, S. Sourirajan, High flow porous membranes for separating water from saline solutions, 1964, Google Patents.
  31. L. Lee, A method of forming a porous cellulose acetate membrane, 1973, Google Patents.
  32. A. Bottino, G. Capannelli, S. Munari, Factors Affecting the Structure and Properties of Asymmetric Polymeric Membranes, In Membranes and Membrane Processes, E. Drioli, M. Nakagaki, Editors. 1986, Springer US: Boston, MA. pp. 163–178.
  33. K. Wang, A.A. Abdalla, M.A. Khaleel, N. Hilal, M.k. Khraishesh, Mechanical properties of water desalination and wastewater treatment membranes, Desalination, 401 (2017) 190–205. [34] N. Gizli, Morphological characterization of cellulose acetate based reverse osmosis membranes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) effect of evaporation time, J. Chem. Chem. Technol., 5 (2011) 5.