1. D. Hendrickx, A. Stephen, D. Lehmann, D. Silva, M. Boelaert, J. Carapetis, R. Walker, A systematic review of the evidence that swimming pools improve health and wellbeing in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, Aust. N.Z. J. Public Health, 40 (2016) 30–36.
  2. S.J. Judd, G. Bullock, The fate of chlorine and organic materials in swimming pools, Chemosphere, 51 (2003) 869–879.
  3. W.A. Cheema, K.M.S. Kaarsholm, H.R. Andersen, Combined UV treatment and ozonation for the removal of by-product precursors in swimming pool water, Water Res., 110 (2017) 141–149.
  4. J. Lee, K.-T. Ha, K.-D. Zoh, Characteristics of trihalomethane (THM) production and associated health risk assessment in swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods, Sci. Total Environ., 407 (2009) 1990–1997.
  5. W.A. Cheema, K.M.S. Kaarsholm, H.R. Andersen, Treatment of Swimming Pool Water with UV Followed by Ozone, International Ozone Association Pan American Group, Las Vegas, United States, 2016.
  6. M.H. Dehghani, G.-R. Jahed, A. Zarei, Investigation of lowpressure ultraviolet radiation on inactivation of rhabitidae nematode from water, Iran. J. Public Health, 42 (2013) 314–319.
  7. R.A.A. Carter, C.A. Joll, Occurrence and formation of disinfection by-products in the swimming pool environment: a critical review, J. Environ. Sci., 58 (2017) 19–50.
  8. S. Chowdhury, K. Alhooshani, T. Karanfil, Disinfection by products in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs, Water Res., 53 (2014) 68–109.
  9. M.J. Plewa, E.D. Wagner, W.A. Mitch, Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of water concentrates from disinfected recreational pools, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (2011) 4159–4165.
  10. T. Manasfi, B. Coulomb, J.-L. Boudenne, Occurrence, origin, and toxicity of disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools: an overview, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 220 (2017) 591–603.
  11. US. EPA, Integrated Risk Information System, 2008. Available at:
  12. WHO, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Some Drinking-Water Disinfectants and Contaminants, Including Arsenic, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2004. Available at:
  13. A. Bernard, C. Voisin, A. Sardella, Con: respiratory risks associated with chlorinated swimming pools: a complex pattern of exposure and effects, Am. J. Respir. Critical Care Med., 183 (2011) 570–572.
  14. A. Florentin, A. Hautemanière, P. Hartemann, Health effects of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pools, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 214 (2011) 461–469.
  15. C.M. Villanueva, K.P. Cantor, J.O. Grimalt, N. Malats, D. Silverman, A. Tardon, R. Garcia-Closas, C. Serra, A. Carrato, G. Castaño-Vinyals, R. Marcos, N. Rothman, F.X. Real, M. Dosemeci, M. Kogevinas, Bladder cancer and exposure to water disinfection by-products through ingestion, bathing, showering, and swimming in pools, Am. J. Epidemiol., 165 (2006) 148–156.
  16. C.M. Villanueva, S. Cordier, L. Font-Ribera, L.A. Salas, P. Levallois, Overview of disinfection by-products and associated health effects, Curr. Environ. Health Rep., 2 (2015) 107–115.
  17. USEPA, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products, Notice of Data Availability, Final Rule, Federal Register, 63 (1998) 69390–69476. Available at:
  18. USEPA, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products Rule: Final Rule, Federal Register, 71 (2006) 388. Available at:
  19. WHO, Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments: Swimming Pools and Similar Environments, Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments: Swimming Pools and Similar Environments, 2006. Available at:
  20. H. Chu, M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Distribution and determinants of trihalomethane concentrations in indoor swimming pools, Occup. Environ. Med., 59 (2002) 243–247.
  21. R. Tardif, C. Catto, S. Haddad, S. Simard, M. Rodriguez, Assessment of air and water contamination by disinfection by-products at 41 indoor swimming pools, Environ. Res., 148 (2016) 411–420.
  22. X.M. Wang, G.L. MI, X.L. Zhang, H.W. Yang, Y.F. Xie, Haloacetic acids in swimming pool and spa water in the United States and China, Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 8 (2014) 820–824.
  23. M.H. Dehghani, M. Farhang, A. Zarei, Data on the level of haloacetic acids in indoor swimming pools of Iran: a case study of Tehran, Data Brief, 19 (2018) 326–330.
  24. WEF, APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, D.C., USA, 2005.
  25. W. Lee, P. Westerhoff, Formation of organic chloramines during water disinfection: chlorination versus chloramination, Water Res., 43 (2009) 2233–2239.
  26. Appropriate Preparation Technique, Method 8260B Volatile Organic Compounds by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1996.
  27. K.M. Hansen, S. Willach, M.G. Antoniou, H. Mosbæk, H.-J. Albrechtsen, H.R. Andersen, Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water—is less THM better?, Water Res., 46 (2012) 6399–6409.
  28. M.J. Plewa, E.D. Wagner, M.G. Muellner, K.-M. Hsu, S.D. Richardson, Occurrence, Formation, Health Effects and Control of Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water, Chapter 3, T. Karanfil, S.W. Krasner, P. Westerhoff, Y. Xie, Eds., Comparative Mammalian Cell Toxicity of N-DBPs and C-DBPs, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2008, pp. 36–50.
  29. H. Kim, J. Shim, S. Lee, Formation of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pool water, Chemosphere, 46 (2002) 123–130.
  30. H. Abidi, J.-L. Gass, M.-F. Grenier-Loustalot, Analyse quantitative de l’urée dans l’eau par HPLC-APCI-MS-MS et HPLCES- MS-MS, Actual. Chim., (2001) 33–36.
  31. J. De Laat, W. Feng, D.A. Freyfer, F. Dossier-Berne, Concentration levels of urea in swimming pool water and reactivity of chlorine with urea, Water Res., 45 (2011) 1139–1146.
  32. N.P. Thacker, V. Nitnaware, Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 71 (2003) 633–640.
  33. C. Hang, B. Zhang, T. Gong, Q. Xian, Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water, Sci. Total Environ., 543 (2016) 425–431.
  34. S. Simard, R. Tardif, M.J. Rodriguez, Variability of chlorination by-product occurrence in water of indoor and outdoor swimming pools, Water Res., 47 (2013) 1763–1772.
  35. B. Ljujic, L. Sundac, [[Council] Directive 98/83/EC [of 3 November
  36. on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption: Review and Intregral Translation [From English into Serbian]], Voda i sanitarna tehnika (Serbia and Montenegro), 1998.
  37. W.A. Weaver, J. Li, Y. Wen, J. Johnston, M.R. Blatchley, E.R. Blatchley III, Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools, Water Res., 43 (2009) 3308–3318.
  38. C. Lourencetti, J.O. Grimalt, E. Marco, P. Fernandez, L. Font-Ribera, C.M. Villanueva, M. Kogevinas, Trihalomethanes in chlorine and bromine disinfected swimming pools: air-water distributions and human exposure, Environ. Int., 45 (2012) 59–67.
  39. E. Righi, G. Fantuzzi, G. Predieri, G. Aggazzotti, Bromate, chlorite, chlorate, haloacetic acids, and trihalomethanes occurrence in indoor swimming pool waters in Italy, Microchem. J., 113 (2014) 23–29.
  40. J. Jin, M.G. El-Din, J.R. Bolton, Assessment of the UV/chlorine process as an advanced oxidation process, Water Res., 45 (2011) 1890–1896.
  41. M.J. Chen, J.M. Duh, R.H. Shie, J.H. Weng, H.T. Hsu, Dynamic real‐time monitoring of chloroform in an indoor swimming pool air using open‐path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Indoor Air, 26 (2016) 457–467.
  42. J. Parinet, S. Tabaries, B. Coulomb, L. Vassalo, J.-L. Boudenne, Exposure levels to brominated compounds in seawater swimming pools treated with chlorine, Water Res., 46 (2012) 828–836.
  43. R.Y.L. Yeh, M.J. Farre, D. Stalter, J.Y.M. Tang, J. Molendijk, B.I. Escher, Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water, Water Res., 59 (2014) 172–184.
  44. A. Kanan, T. Karanfil, Formation of disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool water: the contribution from filling water natural organic matter and swimmer body fluids, Water Res., 45 (2011) 926–932.