1. M.A. Talib, Z. Tang, A. Shahab, J. Siddique, M. Faheem, M. Fatima, Hydrogeochemical characterization and suitability assessment of groundwater: a case study in Central Sindh, Pakistan, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16 (2019) 886.
  2. A. López-Serrano, R.M. Olivas, J.S. Landaluze, C. Cámara, Nanoparticles: a global vision. Characterization, separation, and quantification methods. Potential environmental and health impact, Anal. Methods, 6 (2014) 38–56.
  3. J.P.R. Sorensen, D.J. Lapworth, D.C.W. Nkhuwa, M.E. Stuart, D.C. Gooddy, R.A. Bell, S. Pedley, Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa, Water Res., 72 (2015) 51–63.
  4. G.Y. Hadzi, D.K. Essumang, G.A. Ayoko, Assessment of contamination and health risk of heavy metals in selected water bodies around gold mining areas in Ghana, Environ. Monit. Assess., 190 (2018) 406.
  5. V.M. Wagh, D.B. Panaskar, J.A. Jacobs, S.V. Mukate, A.A. Muley, A.K. Kadam, Influence of hydro-geochemical processes on groundwater quality through geostatistical techniques in Kadava River basin, Western India, Arabian J. Geosci., 12 (2019) 7.
  6. S. Rehman, Z. Hussain, S. Zafar, H. Ullah, S. Badshah, S.S. Ahmad, J. Saleem, Assessment of ground water quality of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, using multivariate statistical approach, Science, 37 (2018) 173–183.
  7. R. Amin, M.B. Zaidi, S. Bashir, R. Khanani, R. Nawaz, S. Ali, S. Khan, Microbial contamination levels in the drinking water and associated health risk in Karachi, Pakistan, J. Water Sanitation Hyg. Dev., 9 (2019) 319–328.
  8. S. Chetty, L. Pillay, Assessing the influence of human activities on river health: a case for two South African rivers with differing pollutant sources, Environ. Monit. Assess., 191 (2019) 168.
  9. M.T. Sohail, H. Delin, M.A. Talib, X. Xiaoqing, M.M. Akhtar, An analysis of environmental law in Pakistan-policy and conditions of implementation, Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 8 (2014) 644–653.
  10. K. Rehman, F. Fatima, I. Waheed, M.S.H. Akash, Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences, J. Cell. Biochem., 119 (2018) 157–184.
  11. Y. Mahfooz, A. Yasar, M.T. Sohail, A.B. Tabinda, R. Rasheed, S. Irshad, B. Yousaf, Investigating the drinking and surface water quality and associated health risks in a semi-arid multiindustrial metropolis (Faisalabad), Pakistan, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 26 (2019) 20853–20865.
  12. A. Rasool, A. Farooqi, T. Xiao, W. Ali, S. Noor, O. Abiola, W. Nasim, A review of global outlook on fluoride contamination in groundwater with prominence on the Pakistan current situation, Environ. Geochem. Health, 40 (2018) 1265–1281.
  13. P.B. Pavlinac, R.L. Brander, H.E. Atlas, G.C. John-Stewart, D.M. Denno, J.L. Walson, Interventions to reduce post-acute consequences of diarrheal disease in children: a systematic review, BMC Publ. Health, 18 (2018) 208.
  14. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, United Nations Statistics Division, Demographic and Social Statistics: Demographic Yearbook 2006, United Nations, New York, accessed on 17–8–2008.
  15. M.T. Sohail, H. Delin, A. Siddiq, Indus basin waters a main resource of water in Pakistan: an analytical approach, Curr. World Environ., 9 (2014) 670.
  16. T.W. Ann, Y. Wu, B. Zheng, X. Zhang, L. Shen, Identifying risk factors of urban-rural conflict in urbanization: a case of China, Habitat Int., 44 (2014) 177–185.
  17. L.Y. Shen, J. Zhou, Examining the effectiveness of indicators for guiding sustainable urbanization in China, Habitat Int., 44 (2014) 111–120.
  18. L. Jiao, L. Shen, C. Shuai, B.A. He, Novel approach for assessing the performance of sustainable urbanization based on structural equation modeling: a China case study, Sustainability, 8 (2016) 910.
  19. A. S. Qureshi, Improving food security and livelihood resilience through groundwater management in Pakistan, Global Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci., 4 (2015) 687–710.
  20. APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 17th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 2012.
  21. R.K. Horton, An index number system for rating water quality, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 37 (1965) 300–306.
  22. C.R. Ramakrishnaiah, C. Sadashivaiah, G. Ranganna, Assessment of water quality index for the ground water in Tumkur Taluk, E-J. Chem., 6 (2009) 523–530.
  23. ASTDR, Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances, Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia, 2000, p. 2000.
  24. USEPA, Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Vol. I, Human Health Evaluation, Manual (Part A), Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, 1989.
  25. M.T. Sohail, Y. Mahfooz, K. Azam, Y. Yen, L. Genfu, S. Fahad, Impacts of urbanization and land cover dynamics on underground water in Islamabad, Pakistan, Desal. Wat. Treat., 159 (2019) 402–411.
  26. ASTDR, Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances, Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia, 2007, pp. 2000.
  27. USEPA, Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, In: Risk Assessment Forum USEPA, Washington, D.C., EPA/630/P- 03/001F, 2005.
  28. S. Khan, Q. Cao, Y. Zheng, Y. Huang, Y. Zhu, Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ. Pollut., 152 (2008) 686–692.
  29. S. Muhammad, M.T. Shah, S. Khan, Arsenic health risk assessment in drinking water and source apportionment using multivariate statistical techniques in Kohistan region, Northern Pakistan, Food Chem. Toxicol., 48 (2010) 2855–2864.
  30. WHO, Background Document for the Development of WHO Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, World Health Organization, 2011.
  31. PCRWR, Annual Report 2005–2006, Part 2. Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), 2008a. Available at: pk/Annual%20 Reports/New%20Annual%20Repot%202005-06_2.pdf.
  32. Y. Mahfooz, A. Yasar, A.B. Tabinda., M.T. Sohail, A. Siddiqua, S. Mahmood, Quantification of the River Ravi pollution load and oxidation pond treatment to improve the drain water quality, Desal. Wat. Treat., 85 (2017) 132–137.
  33. T. Mehmood, I. Bibi, M. Shahid, N.K. Niazi, B. Murtaza, H. Wang, Effect of compost addition on arsenic uptake, morphological and physiological attributes of maize plants grown in contrasting soils, J. Geochem. Explor., 178 (2017) 83–91.
  34. N. Al-Mutairi, A. Abahussain, A. El-Battay, Application of Water Quality Index to Assess the Environmental Quality of Kuwait Bay, International Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences (AABES-2014), Dubai (UAE), Oct 15–16 2014.
  35. A.H.M.J. Alobaidy, H.S. Abid, B.K. Maulood, Application of water quality index for assessment of Dokan lake ecosystem, Kurdistan region, Iraq. J. Water Resour. Prot., 2 (2010) 792.
  36. J. Xiao, L. Wang, L. Deng, Z. Jin, Characteristics, sources, water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements in river water and well water in the Chinese Loess Plateau, Sci. Total Environ., 650 (2019) 2004–2012.
  37. C. Jain, S. Sharma, S. Singh, Physico-chemical characteristics and hydrogeological mechanisms in groundwater with special reference to arsenic contamination in Barpeta District, Assam (India), Environ. Monit. Assess., 190 (2018) 417.
  38. A.M. Piper, A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water‐analyses, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 25 (1944) 914–928.
  39. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Population Size and Growth of Major Cities, Available at: files//tables/population%20size%20and%20growth%20of%20 major%20cities.pdf accessed: 2016-10-30. (archived by webcite® at
  40. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, District and Tehsil Level Population Summary with Region Breakup, Available at: ISLAMABAD_SUMMARY.pdf accessed: 2018-07-05.
  41. B.J. Hibbs, J.M. Sharp, Hydrogeological impacts of urbanization, Environ. Eng. Geosci., 18 (2012) 3–24.
  42. M. Kugelman, Urbanization in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences, NOREF Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center, Washington D.C. 2013.
  43. M.A. Sawas, Urbanization and political change in Pakistan: exploring the known unknowns, Third World Q., 34 (2013) 1293–1304.