1. D. Wang, K. Li, W.K. Teo, Preparation and characterization of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 163 (1999) 211–220.
  2. Y. Chang, Y.-J. Shih, R.-C. Ruaan, A. Higuchi, W.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Lai, Preparation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membrane with uniform surface-copolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and improvement of blood compatibility, J. Membr. Sci., 309 (2008) 165–174.
  3. X. Lü, X. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Zhang, X. Guo, L. Li, Preparation of PU modified PVDF antifouling membrane and its hydrophilic performance, J. Membr. Sci., 520 (2016) 933–940.
  4. P. Wan, J. Yin, B. Deng, Seven-bore hollow fiber membrane (HFM) for ultrafiltration (UF), Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 128 (2017) 240–247.
  5. X. Cao, J. Ma, X. Shi, Z. Ren, Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle size on the performance of PVDF membrane, Appl. Surf. Sci., 253 (2006) 2003–2010.
  6. L. Heng, Y. Yanling, G. Weijia, L. Xing, L. Guibai, Effect of pretreatment by permanganate/chlorine on algae fouling control for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, Desalination, 222 (2008) 74–80.
  7. R. Li, X. Wang, X. Cai, H. Lin, L. Shen, J. Chen, H. Hong, B.Q. Liao, A facile strategy to prepare superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based membranes and the thermodynamic mechanisms underlying the improved performance, Sep. Purif. Technol., 197 (2018) 271–280.
  8. S.H. Park, Y. Ahn, M. Jang, H.J. Kim, K.Y. Cho, S.S. Hwang, J.H. Lee, K.Y. Baek, Effects of methacrylate based amphiphilic block copolymer additives on ultra filtration PVDF membrane formation, Sep. Purif. Technol. ,202 (2018) 34–44.
  9. Y. Li, S. Huang, S. Zhou, A.G. Fane, Y. Zhang, S. Zhao, Enhancing water permeability and fouling resistance of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with carboxylated nanodiamonds, J. Membr. Sci., 556 (2018) 154–163.
  10. L. Liu, H. Chen, F. Yang, Enhancing membrane performance by blending ATRP grafted PMMA-TiO2 or PMMA-PSBMA-TiO2 in PVDF, Sep. Purif. Technol., 133 (2014) 22–31.
  11. M.Z. Li, J.H. Li, X.S. Shao, J. Miao, J.B. Wang, Q.Q. Zhang, X.P. Xu, Grafting zwitterionic brush on the surface of PVDF membrane using physisorbed free radical grafting technique, J. Membr. Sci., 405–406 (2012) 141–148.
  12. S. Zhang, L. Wu, F. Deng, D. Zhao, C. Zhang, C. Zhang, Hydrophilic modification of PVDF porous membrane: via a simple dip-coating method in plant tannin solution, RSC Adv., 6 (2016) 71287–71294.
  13. C. Liu, X. Lei, L. Wang, J. Jia, X. Liang, X. Zhao, H. Zhu, Investigation on the removal performances of heavy metal ions with the layer-by-layer assembled forward osmosis membranes, Chem. Eng. J., 327 (2017) 60–70.
  14. P. Wan, Z. Zhang, B. Deng, Photocatalytic polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with self-cleaning and antifouling property for water treatment, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 58 (2019) 3339–3348.
  15. S.J. Oh, N. Kim, Y.T. Lee, Preparation and characterization of PVDF/TiO2 organic–inorganic composite membranes for fouling resistance improvement, J. Membr. Sci., 345 (2009) 13–20.
  16. Z. Zhu, L. Wang, Q. Li, A bioactive poly (vinylidene fluoride)/graphene oxide@acylase nanohybrid membrane: enhanced anti-biofouling based on quorum quenching, J. Membr. Sci., 547 (2018) 110–122.
  17. Z. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Xu, Q. Li, J. Jiang, X. Wang, Preparation and characteristics of graphene oxide-blending PVDF nanohybrid membranes and their applications for hazardous dye adsorption and rejection, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 504 (2017) 429–439.
  18. N.A.A. Hamid, A.F. Ismail, T. Matsuura, A.W. Zularisam, W.J. Lau, E. Yuliwati, M.S. Abdullah, Morphological and separation performance study of polysulfone/titanium dioxide (PSF/TiO2) ultrafiltration membranes for humic acid removal, Desalination, 273 (2011) 85–92.
  19. N. Meng, R.C.E. Priestley, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Zhang, The effect of reduction degree of GO nanosheets on microstructure and performance of PVDF/GO hybrid membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 501 (2016) 169–178.
  20. S. Bagwasi, B. Tian, J. Zhang, M. Nasir, Synthesis, characterization and application of bismuth and boron Co-doped TiO2: a visible light active photocatalyst, Chem. Eng. J., 217 (2013) 108–118.
  21. S.K. Joung, T. Amemiya, M. Murabayashi, K. Itoh, Mechanistic studies of the photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene with visible-light-driven N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts, Chem. Eur. J., 12 (2006) 5526–5534.
  22. L. Pan, J.J. Zou, X. Zhang, L. Wang, Water-mediated promotion of dye sensitization of TiO2 under visible light, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133 (2011) 10000–10002.
  23. Q. Zhang, R. Li, Z. Li, A. Li, S. Wang, Z. Liang, S. Liao, C. Li, The dependence of photocatalytic activity on the selective and nonselective deposition of noble metal cocatalysts on the facets of rutile TiO2, J. Catal., 337 (2016) 36–44.
  24. J. Choi, H. Park, M.R. Hoffmann, Effects of single metal-ion doping on the visible-light photoreactivity of TiO2, J. Phys. Chem. C, 114 (2010) 783–792.
  25. C. Di Valentin, G. Pacchioni, Trends in non-metal doping of anatase TiO2: B, C, N and F, Catal. Today, 206 (2013) 12–18.
  26. R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, Y. Taga, Visiblelight photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides, Science, 293 (2001) 269–271.
  27. H. Wu, Y. Liu, L. Mao, C. Jiang, J. Ang, X. Lu, Doping polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with TiO2-PDA nanohybrid for simultaneous self-cleaning and self-protection, J. Membr. Sci., 532 (2017) 20–29.
  28. K. Feng, L. Hou, B. Tang, P. Wu, A self-protected self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane by using polydopamine as a freeradical scavenger, J. Membr. Sci., 490 (2015) 120–128.
  29. H. Lee, S.M. Dellatore, W.M. Miller, P.B. Messersmith, Musselinspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings, Science, 318 (2007) 426–430.
  30. Z. Wang, W. Cai, X. Hong, X. Zhao, F. Xu, C. Cai, Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous nitrogen-doped TiO2 suspensions with various light sources, Appl. Catal., B, 57 (2005) 223–231.
  31. J. Yin, Fabrication and Modification of Nanocomposite Membranes for Enhanced Water Purification, University of Missouri--Columbia Dissertation, 2014.
  32. R.X. Zhang, L. Braeken, T.Y. Liu, P. Luis, X.L. Wang, B. Van der Bruggen, Remarkable anti-fouling performance of TiO2-modified TFC membranes with mussel-inspired polydopamine binding, Appl. Sci., 7 (2017) 81.
  33. L. Yuan, Q. Tang, D. Yang, J.Z. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Hu, Preparation of pH-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application in controlled drug delivery, J. Phys. Chem. C, 115 (2011) 9926–9932.
  34. H. Dzinun, M.H.D. Othman, A.F. Ismail, M.H. Puteh, M.A. Rahman, J. Jaafar, Stability study of PVDF/TiO2 dual layer hollow fibre membranes under long-term UV irradiation exposure, J. Water Process Eng., 15 (2017) 78–82.
  35. C.S. Ong, W.J. Lau, B. Al-Anzi, A.F. Ismail, Photodegradation stability study of PVDF- and PEI-based membranes for oily wastewater treatment process, Membr. Water Treat., 8 (2017) 211–223.