1. W.A. Jury, H. Vaux, The role of science in solving the world’s emerging water problems, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (2005) 15715–157120.
  2. E. DeNicola, O.S. Aburizaiza, A. Siddique, H. Khwaja, D.O. Carpenter, Climate change and water scarcity: the case of Saudi Arabia, Ann. Global Health, 81 (2015) 342–353.
  3. M. Shatat, S.B. Riffat, Water desalination technologies utilizing conventional and renewable energy sources, Int. J. Low-Carbon Technol., 9 (2014) 1–19.
  4. S. Lattemann, T. Höpner, Environmental impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination, Desalination, 220 (2008) 1–15.
  5. A.M. Karam, A.S. Alsaadi, N. Ghaffour, T.M. Laleg-Kirati, Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model, Desalination, 402 (2017) 50–61.
  6. M.E. Findley, V.V. Tanna, Y.B. Rao, C.L. Yeh, Mass and heat transfer relations in evaporation through porous membranes, AIChE J., 15 (1969) 483–489.
  7. K.K. Sirkar, Other New Membrane Processes, Membrane Handbook, Springer, Boston, MA, US, 1992, pp. 885–912.
  8. K.W. Lawson, D.R. Lloyd, Membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 124 (1997) 1–25.
  9. L. Martinez, F.J. Florido-Diaz, Theoretical and experimental studies on desalination using membrane distillation, Desalination, 139 (2001) 373–379.
  10. J.-M. Li, Z.-K. Xu, Z.-M. Liu, W.-F. Yuan, H. Xiang, S.-Y. Wang, Y.-Y. Xu, Desalination microporous polypropylene and polyethylene hollow fiber membranes. Part 3. Experimental studies on membrane distillation for desalination, Desalination, 155 (2003) 153–156.
  11. D.U. Lawal, A.E. Khalifa, Flux prediction in direct contact membrane distillation, Int. J. Mater. Mech. Manuf., 2 (2014) 302–308.
  12. D.U. Lawal, A.E. Khalifa, Theoretical and statistical models for predicting flux in direct contact membrane distillation, J. Eng. Res. Appl., 4 (2014) 124–135.
  13. A. Khalifa, H. Ahmad, M. Antar, T. Laoui, M. Khayet, Experimental and theoretical investigations on water desalination using direct contact membrane distillation, Desalination, 404 (2017) 22–34.
  14. H.M. Ahmad, A.E. Khalifa, M.A. Antar, Water desalination using direct contact membrane distillation system, Energy, 6A (2015) V06AT07A024.
  15. T.Y. Cath, V.D. Adams, A.E. Childress, Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane distillation: a new approach to flux enhancement, J. Membr. Sci., 228 (2004) 5–16.
  16. E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard, Energy efficiency comparison of single-stage membrane distillation (MD) desalination cycles in different configurations, Desalination, 290 (2012) 54–66.
  17. J.-G. Lee, Y.-D. Kim, S.-M. Shim, B.-G. Im, W.-S. Kim, Numerical study of a hybrid multi-stage vacuum membrane distillation and pressure-retarded osmosis system, Desalination, 363 (2015) 82–91.
  18. B.L. Pangarkar, S.K. Deshmukh, P.V. Thorat, Energy efficiency analysis of multi-effect membrane distillation (MEMD) water treatment, Int. J. Chem. Technol. Res., 9 (2016) 279–289.
  19. J G. Lee, W.S. Kim, Numerical study on multi-stage vacuum membrane distillation with economic evaluation, Desalination, 339 (2014) 54–67.
  20. H. Geng, J. Wang, C. Zhang, P. Li, H. Chang, High water recovery of RO brine using multi-stage air gap membrane distillation, Desalination, 355 (2015) 178–185.
  21. J. Gilron, L. Song, K.K. Sirkar, Design for cascade of crossflow direct contact membrane distillation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46 (2007) 2324–2334.
  22. F. He, J. Gilron, K.K. Sirkar, K.K. Sirkar, High water recovery in direct contact membrane distillation using a series of cascades, Desalination, 323 (2013) 48–54.
  23. J.-G. Lee, W.-S. Kim, J.-S. Choi, N. Ghaffour, Y.-D. Kim, Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: concept design, modeling and simulation, Desalination, 438 (2017) 278–292.