1. Eurostat, Eurostat Regional Yearbook, Luxembourg, 2015. Available at: 7018888/KS-HA-15-001-EN-N.pdf (15.12. 2019)
  2. EEA, SOER —The European Environment — State and Outlook, European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2015. Available at: (15.12.2019)
  3. M.J. Paul, J.L. Meyer, Streams in the urban landscape, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 32 (2001) 333–365.
  4. K. Steinke, R.W. Kussow, J.C. Stier, Potential contributions of mature prairie and turfgass to phosphorus in urban runoff, J. Environ. Qual., 42 (2013) 1176–1184.
  5. K. Song, M.A. Xenopoulos, J. Marsalek, P.C. Frost, The fingerprints of urban nutrients: dynamics of phosphorus speciation in water flowing through developed landscapes, Biogeochemistry, 125 (2015) 1–10.
  6. European Commission, Towards an EU Research and Innovation Policy Agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and Re-Naturing Cities, Brussels. Cities, Brussels. Available at: https://op.europa. eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/fb117980-d5aa-46df-8edc-af367cddc202 (15.12.2019)
  7. J.A.C. Castellar, J. Formosa, J.M. Chimenos, J. Canals, M. Bosch, J.R. Rosell, H.P. Silva, J. Morató, H. Brix, C.A. Arias, Crushed autoclaved aerated concrete (CAAC), a potential reactive filter medium for enhancing phosphorus removal in nature-based solutions—preliminary batch studies, Water, 11 (2019) 1442.
  8. C.B. Jiang, J. Li, H. Li, Y.J. Li, L. Chen, Field performance of bioretention systems for runoff quantity regulation and pollutant removal, Water Air Soil Pollut., 228 (2017) 468.
  9. EEA Report No 26/2016 Rivers and Lakes in European Cities Past and Future Challenges, Luxembourg. Available at: https:// (15.12.2019)
  10. Katalog Dobrych Praktyk, Zasady zrównoważonego gospodarowania wodami opadowymi pochodzącymi z nawierzchni pasów drogowych, Wrocław, Poland, 2017.
  11. B.G. Gregoire, J.C. Clausen, Effect of modular extensive green roof on stormwater runoff and water quality, Ecol. Eng., 37 (2011) 963–969.
  12. J.M. Aloisio, A.R. Tuininga, J.D. Lewis, Crop species selection effects on stormwater runoff and edible biomass in an agricultural green roof microcosm, Ecol. Eng., 88 (2016) 20–27.
  13. D.A. Beck, G.R. Johnson, G.A. Spolek, Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality, Environ. Pollut., 159 (2011) 2111–2118.
  14. M. Seidl, M.-C. Gromaire, M. Saad, B. De Gouvello, Effect of substrate depth and rain-event history on the pollutant abadement of green roofs, Environ. Pollut., 183 (2013) 195–203.
  15. K. Vijayaraghavan, D.H.K. Reddy, Y.S. Yun, Improving the quality of runoff from green roofs through synergistic biosorption and phytoremediation techniques: a review, Sustainable Cities Soc., 46 (2019) 101381.
  16. M.E. Dietz, J.C. Clausen, A field evaluation of rain garden flow and pollutant treatment, Water Air Soil Pollut., 167 (2005) 123–138.
  17. M. O’Shea, M. Borst, C. Nietch, The role of stormwater BMPs in mitigating the effects of nutrient over enrichment in urban watershed, Global Solut. Urban Drain., (2002) 1–16, doi: 10.1061/40644(2002)24.
  18. Best Management Practice Database, International Stormwater Best Management Practices Database Pollutant Category Summary, Denver. Available at: pdatabase. org (15.12.2019)
  19. C. Vohla, M. Kõiv, H.J. Bavor, F. Chazarenc, Ü. Mander, Filter materials for phosphorus removal from wastewater in treatment wetlands—a review, Ecol. Eng., 37 (2011) 70–89.
  20. H. Bacelo, A.M. Pintor, S.C. Santos, R.A. Boaventura, C.M. Botelho, Performance and prospects of different adsorbents for phosphorus uptake and recovery from water, Chem. Eng. J., 381 (2020) 122566.
  21. N. Chen, W.W. Hu, C.P. Feng, Z. Zhang, Removal of phosphorus from water using scallop shell synthesized ceramic biomaterials, Environ. Earth Sci., 71 (2014) 2133–2142.
  22. G. McKay, Use of Adsorbents for Removal Pollutants from Wastewater, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1996.
  23. J. Lin, L. Wang, Comparison between linear and non-linear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic models for the removal of methylene blue by activated carbon, Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 3 (2009) 320–324.
  24. A. Karczmarczyk, A. Bus, A. Baryła, Phosphate leaching from green roof substrates—can green roofs pollute urban water bodies?, Water, 10 (2018) 199.
  25. Stowarzyszenie Wykonawców Dachów Płaskich i Fasad (DAFA). Dachy zielone. In Wytyczne do Projektowania, Wykonywania i Pielęgnacji Dachów Zielonych—Wytyczne dla Dachów Zielonych; Stowarzyszenie Wykonawców Dachów Płaskich i Fasad (DAFA), Opole, Poland, 2015.
  26. Y.S. Ho, D. McKay, Pseudo-second-order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem., 34 (1999) 451–465.
  27. A. Bus, A. Karczmarczyk, Kinetic studies on removing phosphate from synthetic solution and river water by reactive material in a form of suspended reactive filters, Desal. Water Treat., 136 (2018) 237–244.
  28. K. Riahi, S. Chaabane, B.B. Thayer, A kinetic modeling study of phosphate adsorption onto Phoenix dactylifera L. date palm fibers in batch mode, J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 21 (2013) 143–152.
  29. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Y.Y. Zhang, F.J. Song, X.Q. Cao, X.J. Lyu, Y. Zhang, J. Crittenden, Statistical optimization and batch studies on adsorption of phosphate using Al-eggshell, Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 36 (2018) 999–1017.
  30. J. Chen, Y. Cai, M.C. Clark, Y. Yu, Equilibrium and kinetic studies of phosphate removal from solution onto a hydrothermally modified oyster shell material, PLoS One, 8 (2013) e60243.
  31. Z. Guo, J.H. Li, Z.B. Guo, Q.J. Guo, B. Zhu, Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution in parent and aluminum modified eggshells: thermodynamics and kinetics, adsorption mechanism, and diffusion process, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 24 (2017) 14525–14536.
  32. K. Ádám, A.K. Søvik, T. Krogstad, Sorption of phosphorous to filtralite-PTM—the effect of different scales, Water Res., 40 (2006) 1143–1154.
  33. W.C. Tan, Q.Y. Wang, Y.B. Wang, Z.K. Pan, Adsorption of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Natural Zeolite and its Influencing Factors, International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, Changsha, China, 2011, pp. 1949–1952.
  34. P. Loganathan, S. Vigneswaran, J. Kandasamy, N.S. Bolan, Removal and recovery of phosphate from water using sorption, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (2014) 847–907.
  35. R. Mlih, F. Bydalek, E. Klumpp, N. Yaghi, R. Bol, J. Wenk, Light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as a substrate in constructed wetlands–a review, Ecol. Eng., 148 (2020) 105783.
  36. K. Karageorgiou, M. Paschalis, G.N. Anastassakis, Removal of phosphate species from solution by adsorption onto calcite used as natural adsorbent, J. Hazard. Mater., 139 (2007) 447–452.
  37. W.J. Li, L.X. Zeng, Y. Kang, Q.Y. Zhang, J.W. Luo, X.M. Guo, A solid waste, crashed autoclaved aerated concrete, as a crystalline nucleus for the removal of low concentration of phosphate, Desal. Water Treat., 57 (2016) 14169–14177.
  38. O. Khelifi, Y. Kozuki, H. Murakami, K. Kurata, M. Nishioka, Nutrients adsorption from seawater by new porous carrier made from zeolitized fly ash and slag, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 45 (2002) 311–315.
  39. A. Bus, A. Karczmarczyk, A. Baryła, Calcined eggshell as a P reactive media filter—batch tests and column sorption experiment, Water Air Soil Pollut., 230 (2019) 20.
  40. D.J. Ballantine, C.C. Tanner, Substrate and filter materials to enhance phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treating diffuse farm runoff: a review, N.Z.J. Agric. Res., 53 (2010) 71–95.
  41. L.J. Westholm, Substrates for phosphorus removal—potential benefits for on-site wastewater treatment?, Water Res., 40 (2006) 23–36.
  42. Y.T. Wang, Z.Q. Cai, S. Sheng, F. Pan, F.F. Chen, J. Fu, Comprehensive evaluation of substrate materials for contaminants removal in constructed wetlands, Sci. Total Environ., 701 (2020) 134736.
  43. M. Kasprzyk, M. Gajewska, Phosphorus removal by application of natural and semi-natural materials for possible recovery according to assumptions of circular economy and closed circuit of P, Sci. Total Environ., 650 (2019) 249–256.
  44. X. Liu, H.Y. Zhong, Y. Yang, L. Yuan, S. Liu, Phosphorus removal from wastewater by waste concrete: influence of P concentration and temperature on the product, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 27 (2020) 10766–10777.
  45. K. Kang, C.G. Lee, J.W. Choi, S.G. Hong, S.J. Park, Application of thermally treated crushed concrete granules for the removal of phosphate: a cheap adsorbent with high adsorption capacity, Water Air Soil Pollut., 228 (2017) 8.
  46. J. Xie, Z. Wang, S.Y. Lu, D. Wu, Z.J. Zhang, H. Kong, Removal and recovery of phosphate from water by lanthanum hydroxide materials, Chem. Eng. J., 254 (2014) 163–170.
  47. M. Hermassi, C. Valderrama, N. Moreno, O. Font, X. Querol, N.H. Batis, J.L. Cortina, Fly ash as reactive sorbent for phosphate removal from treated waste water as a potential slow release fertilizer, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 5 (2017) 160–169.
  48. G.S. Zhang, H.J. Liu, R.P. Liu, J.H. Qu, Removal of phosphate from water by a Fe–Mn binary oxide adsorbent, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 335 (2009) 168–174.
  49. J. Goscianska, M. Ptaszkowska-Koniarz, M. Frankowski, M. Franus, R. Panek, W. Franus, Removal of phosphate from water by lanthanum-modified zeolites obtained from fly ash, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 513 (2018) 72–81.
  50. J. Łożyńska, A. Bańkowska-Sobczak, Z. Popek, J.A. Dunalska, Selection of P-reactive materials for treatment of hypolimnetic water withdrawn from eutrophic lakes, Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol., 20 (2020) 276–288.
  51. M.E. Mitchell, S.F. Matter, R.D. Durtsche, I. Buffam, Elevated phoshorus: dynamics during four years of green roof development, Urban Ecosyst., 20 (2017) 1121–1133.
  52. A. Bus, A. Karczmarczyk, A. Baryła, The use of reactive material for limiting P-leaching from green roof substrate, Water Sci. Technol., 73 (2016) 3027–3032.
  53. A. Bus, A. Karczmarczyk, Supporting constructed wetlands in P-removal efficiency from surface water, Water Sci. Technol., 75 (2017) 2554–2561.
  54. A. Karczmarczyk, A. Bus, Removal of phosphorus using suspended reactive filters (SRFs)–efficiency and potential applications, Water Sci. Technol., 76 (2017) 1104–1111.
  55. Ogród deszczowy w gruncie. Instrukcja budowy. Available at: broszura-ogrod-deszczowy-w-gruncie.pdf (10.12.2019)
  56. EPA, Soak Up the Rain: Rain Gardens, USA. Available at: (11.12.2019)
  57. P.T. Weiss, Z.Y. Aljobeh, C. Bradford, E.A. Breitzke, An Iron- Enhanced Rain Garden for Dissolved Phosphorus Removal, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Florida, 2016.