1. S. Ghorai, K.K. Pant, Investigations on the column performance of fluoride adsorption by activated alumina in a fixed-bed, Chem. Eng. J., 98 (2004) 165–173.
  2. WHO, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2nd ed., Addendum to Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, Vol. 2, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1998, pp. 123–152.
  3. P.T.C. Harrison, Fluoride in water: a UK perspective, J. Fluorine Chem., 126 (2005) 1448–1456.
  4. S.S. Tripathy, J.-L. Bersillon, K. Gopal, Removal of fluoride from drinking water by adsorption onto alum-impregnated activated alumina, Sep. Purif. Technol., 50 (2006) 310–317.
  5. T. Nur, P. Loganathan, T.C. Nguyen, S. Vigneswaran, G. Singh, J. Kandasamy, Batch and column adsorption and desorption of fluoride using hydrous ferric oxide: solution chemistry and modeling, Chem. Eng. J., 247 (2014) 93–102.
  6. X.Z. Xiong, J.L. Liu, W.H. He, T. Xia, P. He, X.M. Chen, K.D. Yang, A.G. Wang, Dose–effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children, Environ. Res., 103 (2007) 112–116.
  7. J.L. Davila-Rodriguez, V.A. Escobar-Barrios, J.R. Rangel- Mendez, Removal of fluoride from drinking water by a chitinbased biocomposite in fixed-bed columns, J. Fluorine Chem., 140 (2012) 99–103.
  8. V.K. Gupta, I. Ali, V.K. Saini, Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry, Water Res., 41 (2007) 3307–3316.
  9. V. Khatibikamal, A. Torabian, F. Janpoor, G. Hoshyaripour, Fluoride removal from industrial wastewater using electrocoagulation and its adsorption kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater., 179 (2010) 276–280.
  10. A. Toyoda, T. Taira, A new method for treating fluorine wastewater to reduce sludge and running costs, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf., 13 (2000) 305–309.
  11. M. Agarwal, K. Rai, R. Shrivastav, S. Dass, Deflouridation of water using amended clay, J. Cleaner Prod., 11 (2003) 439–444.
  12. E.M. Nigri, A. Bhatnagar, S.D.F. Rocha, Thermal regeneration process of bone char used in the fluoride removal from aqueous solution, J. Cleaner Prod., 142 (2017) 3558–357.
  13. N.A. Medellin-Castillo, R. Leyva-Ramos, R. Ocampo-Perez, R.F. Garcia de la Cruz, A. Aragon-Piña, J.M. Martinez-Rosales, R.M. Guerrero-Coronado, L. Fuentes-Rubio, Adsorption of fluoride from water solution on bone char, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46 (2007) 9205–9212.
  14. L.D. Benefield, J.F. Judkins, B.L. Weand, Process Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1982.
  15. R. Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins, Publishing Co., Flórida, 1990.
  16. V. Colla, T.A. Branca, F. Rosito, C. Lucca, B.P. Vivas, V.M. Delmiro, Sustainable reverse osmosis application for wastewater treatment in the steel industry, J. Cleaner Prod., 130 (2016) 103–115.
  17. P. Gwala, S. Andey, V. Mhaisalkar, P. Labhasetwar, S. Pimpalkar, C. Kshirsagar, Lab scale study on electrocoagulation defluoridation process optimization along with aluminium leaching in the process and comparison with full scale plant operation, Water Sci. Technol., 63 (2011) 2788–2795.
  18. R. Simons, Trace element removal from ash dam waters by nanofiltration and diffusion dialysis, Desalination, 89 (1993) 325–341.
  19. N. Drouiche, S. Aoudj, M. Hecini, N. Ghaffour, H. Lounici, N. Mameri, Study on the treatment of photovoltaic wastewater using electrocoagulation: fluoride removal with aluminium electrodes—characteristics of products, J. Hazard. Mater., 169 (2009) 65–69.
  20. N. Mameri, A.R. Yeddou, H. Lounici, D. Belhocine, H. Grib, B. Bariou, Defluoridation of septentrional Sahara water of north Africa by electrocoagulation process using bipolar aluminium electrodes, Water Res., 32 (1998) 1604–1612.
  21. A. Guzmán, J.L. Nava, O. Coreño, I. Rodríguez, S. Gutiérrez, Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a continuous filter-press reactor, Chemosphere, 144 (2016) 2113–2120.
  22. R.V. Drondina, I.V. Drako, Electrochemical technology of fluorine removal from underground and waste waters, J. Hazard. Mater., 37 (1994) 91–100.
  23. C.-L. Yang, R. Dluhy, Electrochemical generation of aluminum sorbent for fluoride adsorption, J. Hazard. Mater., 94 (2002) 239–252.
  24. F. Shen, X.M. Chen, P. Gao, G.H. Chen, Electrochemical removal of fluoride ions from industrial wastewater, Chem. Eng. Sci., 58 (2003) 987–993.
  25. M.M. Emamjomeh, M. Sivakumar, An empirical model for defluoridation by batch monopolar electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) process, J. Hazard. Mater., 131 (2006) 118–125.
  26. J. Zhu, H.Z. Zhao, J. Ni, Fluoride distribution in electrocoagulation defluoridation process, Sep. Purif. Technol., 56 (2007) 184–191.
  27. U. Tezcan Un, A.S. Koparal, U. Bakir Ogutveren, Fluoride removal from water and wastewater with a bach cylindrical electrode using electrocoagulation, Chem. Eng. J., 223 (2013) 110–115.
  28. M.A. Sandoval, R. Fuentes, J.L. Nava, I. Rodríguez, Fluoride removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation in a continuous filter press reactor coupled to a flocculator and clarifier, Sep. Purif. Technol., 134 (2014) 163–170.
  29. M. Alimohammadi, M. Askari, M.H. Dehghani, A. Dalvand, R. Saeedi, K. Yetilmezsoy, B. Heibati, G. McKay, Elimination of natural organic matter by electrocoagulation using bipolar and monopolar arrangements of iron and aluminum electrodes, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 14 (2017) 2125–2134.
  30. U.K. Garg, C. Sharma, U.K. Garg, Electrocoagulation: promising technology for removal of fluoride from drinking water – a review, Biol. Forum, 8 (2016) 248–254.
  31. B. Naraghi, M.M. Baneshi, R. Amiri, A. Dorost, H. Biglari, Removal of Reactive black 5 dye from aqueous solutions by coupled electrocoagulation and bio-adsorbent process, Electron. Physician, 10 (2018) 7086–7094.
  32. M.A.G. Nasser, S.R. Rawia, N.B.F. Nader, Application of electrocoagulation on adsorption of styrene acrylate polymer from aqueous solutions, Int. J. Sci. Res. Environ. Sci. Toxicol., 3 (2018) 1–11.
  33. E. Bazrafshan, K.A. Ownagh, A.H. Mahvi, Application of electrocoagulation process using iron and aluminum electrodes for fluoride removal from aqueous environment, E-J. Chem., 9 (2012) 2297–2308.
  34. M.M. Emamjomeh, M. Sivakumar, A.S. Varyani, Analysis and the understanding of fluoride removal mechanisms by an electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) process, Desalination, 275 (2011) 102–106.
  35. A. Ezzeddine, A. Bedoui, A. Hannachi, N. Bensalah, Removal of fluoride from aluminum fluoride manufacturing wastewater by precipitation and adsorption processes, Desal. Water Treat., 54 (2015) 2280–2292.
  36. M.A. Abdel Khalek, F.I. El-Hosiny, K.A. Selim, I. Osama, Produced water treatment using a new designed electroflotation cell, Int. J. Res. Ind. Eng., 6 (2017) 328–338.
  37. P.K. Holt, G.W. Barton, M. Wark, C.A. Mitchell, A quantitative comparison between chemical dosing and electrocoagulation, Colloids Surf., A, 211 (2002) 233–248.
  38. D. Ghernaout, Electrocoagulation process: a mechanistic review at the dawn of its modeling, J. Environ. Sci. Allied Res., 2 (2019) 22–38.
  39. C. Jiménez, C. Sáez, F. Martínez, P. Cañizares, M.A. Rodrigo, Electrochemical dosing of iron and aluminum in continuous processes: a key step to explain electro-coagulation processes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 98 (2012) 102–108.
  40. S. Garcia-Segura, M.M.S.G. Eiband, J.V. de Melo, C.A. Martínez- Huitle, Electrocoagulation and advanced electrocoagulation processes: a general review about the fundamentals, emerging applications and its association with other technologies, J. Electroanal. Chem., 801 (2017) 267–299.
  41. D. Ghosh, C.R. Medhi, M.K. Purkait, Treatment of fluoride containing drinking water by electrocoagulation using monopolar and bipolar electrode connections, Chemosphere, 73 (2008) 1393–1400.
  42. D. Ghosh, C.R. Medhi, M.K. Purkait, Techno-economic analysis for the electrocoagulation of fluoride-contaminated drinking water, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 93 (2011) 424–437.
  43. J.M. Babu, S. Goel, Defluoridation of drinking water in batch and continuous-flow electrocoagulation systems, Pollut. Res., 32 (2013) 727–736.
  44. APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., USA, 2012.
  45. M. Al-Shannag, Z. Al-Qodah, K. Bani-Melhem, M.R. Qtaishat, M. Alkasrawi, Heavy metal ions removal from metal plating wastewater using electrocoagulation: kinetic study and process performance, Chem. Eng. J., 260 (2015) 749–756.
  46. E. Nariyan, M. Sillanpää, C. Wolkersdorfer, Electrocoagulation treatment of mine water from the deepest working European metal mine – performance, isotherm and kinetic studies, Sep. Purif. Technol., 177 (2017) 363–373.
  47. J.R. Parga, V. Vazquez, H. Moreno, Thermodynamic studies of the arsenic adsorption on iron species generated by electrocoagulation, J. Metall., 2009 (2009) 1–9.
  48. J.N. Hakizimana, B. Gourich, M. Chafi, Y. Stiriba, C. Vial, P. Drogui, J. Naja, Electrocoagulation process in water treatment: a review of electrocoagulation modeling approaches, Desalination, 404 (2017) 1–21.
  49. W. Den, C.-J. Wang, Removal of silica from brackish water by electrocoagulation pretreatment to prevent fouling of reverse osmosis membranes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 59 (2008) 318–325.
  50. C.-Y. Hu, S.-L. Lo, W.-H. Kuan, Simulation the kinetics of fluoride removal by electrocoagulation (EC) process using aluminum electrodes, J. Hazard. Mater., 145 (2007) 180–185.
  51. A.I. Adeogun, R.B. Balakrishnan, Kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies of electrocoagulation removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution using steel electrodes, Appl. Water Sci., 7 (2017) 1711–1723.
  52. M.H. Isa, E.H. Ezechi, Z. Ahmed, S.F. Magram, S.R.M. Kutty, Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery, Water Res., 51 (2014) 113–123.
  53. N.A. Medellin-Castillo, R. Leyva-Ramos, E. Padilla-Ortega, R.O. Perez, J.V. Flores-Cano, M.S. Berber-Mendoza, Adsorption capacity of bone char for removing fluoride from water solution, Role of hydroxyapatite content, adsorption mechanism and competing anions, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 20 (2014) 4014–4021.
  54. H.M.F. Freundlich, Over the adsorption in solution, J. Phys. Chem., 57 (1906) 385–471.
  55. I. Langmuir, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38 (1916) 2221–2295.
  56. O. Redlich, D.L. Peterson, A useful adsorption isotherm, J. Phys. Chem., 63 (1959) 1024–1024.
  57. R. Sips, On the structure of a catalyst surface, J. Chem. Phys., 16 (1948) 490–495.
  58. M.I. Tempkin, V. Pyzhev, Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalyst, Acta Phys. Chim. URSS, 12 (1940) 217–222.
  59. CONAMA, Resolução 430, (2011). Available at: http://www. pdf
  60. M.M. Emamjomeh, M. Farzadkia, Fluoride removal by electrocoagulation (EC) process: aluminum chemistry and speciation, Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4 (2016) 82–85.
  61. K.Y. Foo, B.H. Hameed, Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems, Chem. Eng. J., 156 (2010) 2–10.
  62. S. Aoudj, N. Drouiche, M. Hecini, T. Ouslimane, B. Palaouane, Coagulation as a post-treatment method for the defluoridation of photovoltaic cell manufacturing wastewater, Procedia Eng., 33 (2012) 111–120.
  63. N. Drouiche, N. Ghaffour, S. Aoudj, M. Hecini, T. Ouslimane, Fluoride removal from photovoltaic wastewater by aluminum electrocoagulation and characteristics of products, Chem. Eng. Trans., 17 (2009) 1651–1656.
  64. R.L. Frost, J.T. Kloprogge, Infrared emission spectroscopic study of brucite, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 55 (1999) 2195–2205.
  65. S. Sandhya, S. Sureshbabu, H.K. Varma, M. Komath, Nucleation kinetics of the formation of low dimensional calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals in isopropyl alcohol medium, Cryst. Res. Technol., 47 (2012) 780–792.
  66. M.P. Andersson, C.P. Hem, L.N. Schultz, J.W. Nielsen, C.S. Pedersen, K.K. Sand, D.V. Okhrimenko, A. Johnsson, S.L.S. Stipp, Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of calcite, chalk, and coccoliths-do we observe the mineral surface, J. Phys. Chem. A, 118 (2014) 10720–10729.
  67. L. Chen, G.P. Chen, X.X. Wang, H.X. Fang, C.X. Wu, T.T. Xing, Synthesis of strontium carbonate rods and hierarchical branches in the presence of two organic additives, Cryst. Res. Technol., 45 (2010) 254–258.
  68. U. Gross, S. Rüdiger, E. Kemnitz, K.W. Brzezinka, S. Mukhopadhyay, C. Bailey, A. Wander, N. Harrison, Vibrational analysis study of aluminum trifluoride phases, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111 (2007) 5813–5819.