1. M.R. Awual, A novel facial composite adsorbent for enhanced copper(II) detection and removal from wastewater, Chem. Eng. J., 266 (2015) 368–375.
  2. J.Z.Y. Tan, N.M. Nursam, F. Xia, M.-A. Sani, W. Li, X. Wang, R.A. Caruso, High-performance coral reef-like carbon nitrides: synthesis and application in photocatalysis and heavy metal ion adsorption, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9 (2017) 4540–4547.
  3. S. Zheng, X. Li, X. Zhang, W. Wang, S. Yuan, Effect of inorganic regenerant properties on pharmaceutical adsorption and desorption performance on polymer anion exchange resin, Chemosphere, 182 (2017) 325–331.
  4. M.R. Awual, New type mesoporous conjugate material for selective optical copper(II) ions monitoring and removal from polluted waters, Chem. Eng. J., 307 (2017) 85–94.
  5. M.R. Awual, Solid phase sensitive palladium(II) ions detection and recovery using ligand based efficient conjugate nanomaterials, Chem. Eng. J., 300 (2016) 264–272.
  6. M.A. Abri, A. Dakheel, C. Tizaoui, N. Hilal, Combined humic substance and heavy metals coagulation, and membrane filtration under saline conditions, Desalination, 25 (2010) 46–50.
  7. N. Chitpong, S.M. Husson, High-capacity, nanofiber-based ion-exchange membranes for the selective recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters, Sep. Purif. Technol., 179 (2017) 94–103.
  8. U. Domanska, A. Rekawek, Extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions using imidazolium based ionic liquids, J. Solution Chem., 38 (2009) 739–751.
  9. A. Kolbasov, S.S. Ray, A.L. Yarin, B. Pourdeyhimi, Heavy metal adsorption on solution-blown biopolymer nanofiber membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 530 (2017) 250–263.
  10. P. Wu, M. Imai, Novel Biopolymer Composite Membrane Involved with Selective Mass Transfer and Excellent Water Permeability, R.Y. Ning, Ed., Advancing Desalination, IntechOpen, Croatia, 2017, pp. 3157–3181, doi: 10.5772/50697.
  11. K. Kashima, M. Imai, Impact factors to regulate mass transfer characteristics of stable alginate membrane performed superior sensitivity on various organic chemicals, Procedia Eng., 42 (2012) 964–977.
  12. M.S. Mohy Eldin, A.E. Hashem, T.M. Tamer, A.M. Omer, M.E. Yossuf, M.M. Sabet, Development of crosslinked chitosan/ alginate polyelectrolyte proton exchanger membranes for fuel cell applications, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 12 (2017) 3840–3858.
  13. I. Donati, S. Paoletti, Material Properties of Alginates, B.H.A. Rehm, Ed., Alginates: Biology and Applications, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2009, pp. 1–53.
  14. K.I. Draget, G.O. Phillips, P.A. Williams, Handbook of Hydrocolloids, Alginates, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Oxford Cambridge, 2009, pp. 1–902.
  15. C. Simpliciano, L. Clark, B. Asi, N. Chu, M. Mercado, S. Diaz, M. Goedert, M.M. Miremadi, Cross-linked alginate film pore size determination using atomic force microscopy and validation using diffusivity determinations, J. Surf. Eng. Mater. Adv. Technol., 3 (2013) 1–12.
  16. I.W. Cottrell, P. Kovacs, R.L. Davidson, Handbook of Water- Soluble Gums and Resins, Alginates, McGraw Hill Inc., New York, 1980, pp. 1–132.
  17. M.A. de Moraesa, D.S. Cocenza, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, L.F. Fraceto, M.M. Beppu, Chitosan and alginate biopolymer membranes for remediation of contaminated water with herbicides, J. Environ. Manage., 131 (2013) 222–227.
  18. C.F. Huang, A.C. Huang, Y.F. Hsieh, F.J. Chu, T.J. Wan, The effects of magnetic nanoparticles embedded with SA/PVA and pH on chemical-mechanical polishing wastewater and magnetic particle regeneration and recycle, Water Resour. Ind., 18 (2017) 9–16.
  19. S.M.A. Soliman, A.M. Ali, M.W. Sabaa, Alginate-based hydrogel for water treatment, Desal. Water Treat., 94 (2017) 129–136.
  20. K.Y. Lee, D.J. Mooney, Alginate: properties and biomedical applications, Prog. Polym. Sci., 37 (2012) 106–126.
  21. C.Z. Bueno, A.M.A. Dias, H.J.C. de Sousa, M.E.M. Braga, A.M. Moraes, Control of the properties of porous chitosanalginate membranes through the addition of different proportions of Pluronic F68, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 44 (2014) 117–125.
  22. B. Ma, A. Qin, X. Li, X. Zhao, C. He, Structure and properties of chitin whisker reinforced chitosan membranes, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 64 (2014) 341–346.
  23. T. Andersen, B.L. Strand, K. Formo, E. Alsberg, B.E. Christensen, Alginates as Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering, A.P. Rauter, T. Lindhorst, Eds., Carbohydrate Chemistry, Volume 37, The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2012, pp. 227–258.
  24. G. Orive, A.M. Carcaboso, R.M. Hernandez, A.R. Gascon, J.L. Pedraz, Biocompatibility evaluation of different alginates and alginate-based microcapsules, Biomacromolecules, 6 (2005) 927–931.
  25. Y. Yang, O.H. Campanella, B.R. Hamaker, G. Zhang, Z. Gu, Rheological investigation of alginate chain interactions induced by concentrating calcium cations, Food Hydrocolloids, 30 (2013) 26–32.
  26. G.T. Grant, E.R. Morris, D.A. Rees, P.J.C. Smith, D. Thom, Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: the egg-box model, FEBS Lett., 32 (1973) 195–198.
  27. M. Al-Remawi, Sucrose as a crosslinking modifier for the preparation of calcium alginate films via external gelation, J. Appl. Sci., 12 (2012) 727–735.
  28. G.I. Olivas, G.V.B. Canovas, Alginate-calcium films: water vapor permeability and mechanical properties as affected by plasticizer and relative humidity, LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 41 (2008) 359–366.
  29. T.N. Julian, G.W. Radebaugh, S.J. Wisniewski, Permeability characteristics of calcium alginate films, J. Controlled Release, 7 (1988) 165–169.
  30. Y.A. Mørch, I. Donati, B.L. Strand, G.S. Braek, Effect of Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+ on alginate microbeads, Biomacromolecules, 7 (2006) 1471–1480.
  31. O. Smidsrød, G.S. Bræk, Alginate as immobilization matrix for cells, Trends Biotechnol., 8 (1990) 71–78.
  32. R. Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva, A.R. Hidalgo-Vázquez, C. de Jesús Cortés Penagos, R. Cortés-Martínez, Thermodynamic, kinetic, and equilibrium parameters for the removal of lead and cadmium from aqueous solutions with calcium alginate beads, Sci. World J., 2014 (2014) 1–9, doi: 10.1155/2014/647512.
  33. S.B. Kuila, S.K. Ray, Separation of benzene–cyclohexane mixtures by filled blend membranes of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, Sep. Purif. Technol., 123 (2014) 45–52.
  34. J.M. Yang, N.C. Wang, H.C. Chiu, Preparation and characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blended membrane for alkaline solid polymer electrolytes membrane, J. Membr. Sci., 457 (2014) 139–148.
  35. M.E. Nimni, D. Cheung, B. Strates, M. Kodama, K. Sheikh, Chemically modified collagen: a natural biomaterial for tissue replacement, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21 (1987) 741–771.
  36. Y. Li, H. Jia, Q. Cheng, F. Pan, Z. Jiang, Sodium alginate–gelatin polyelectrolyte complex membranes with both high water vapor permeance and high permselectivity, J. Membr. Sci., 375 (2011) 304–312.
  37. E.A. Kamoun, E.R.S. Kenawy, T.M. Tamer, M.A. El-Meligy, M.S. Mohy Eldin, Poly(vinyl alcohol)-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: characterization and bio-evaluation, Arabian J. Chem., 8 (2015) 38–47.
  38. K. Cao, Z. Jiang, J. Zhao, C. Zhao, C. Gao, F. Pan, B. Wang, X. Cao, J. Yang, Enhanced water permeation through sodium alginate membranes by incorporating graphene oxides, J. Membr. Sci., 469 (2014) 272–283.
  39. J.H. Chen, Q.L. Liu, S.R. Hu, J.C. Ni, Y.S. He, Adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by glutaraldehyde crosslinked humic acid-immobilized sodium alginate porous membrane adsorbent, J. Chem. Eng., 173 (2011) 511–519.
  40. J.H. Chen, H.T. Xing, H.X. Guo, G.P. Li, W. Weng, S.R. Hu, Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of a novel 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized sodium alginate porous membrane adsorbent for Cr(III) ions, J. Hazard. Mater., 248–249 (2013) 285–294.
  41. Y.Q. Dong, L.L. Zhang, J.N. Shen, M.Y. Song, H.L. Chen, Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-sodium alginate hollowfiber composite membranes and pervaporation dehydration characterization of aqueous alcohol mixtures, Desalination, 193 (2006) 202–210.
  42. S. Mokhtarzadeh, F. Hakimpour, R. Sarvari, S. Agbolaghi, Y. Mansourpanah, Nanocomposite membranes based on sodium alginate/poly(ε-caprolactone)/graphene oxide for methanol, ethanol and isopropanol dehydration via pervaporation, Polym. Bull., 77 (2019) 1–21.
  43. S. Mallakpour, V. Behranvand, Chapter 10 – Green Hybrid Nanocomposites from Metal Oxides, Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone): Structure and Chemistry, V. Kumar Thakur, M. Kumari Thakur, R. Kumar Gupta, Eds., Hybrid Polymer Composite Materials: Structure and Chemistry, Woodhead Publishing, 2017, pp. 263–289, doi: 10.1016/ B978-0-08-100791-4.00010-0.
  44. S. Mallakpour, M. Dinari, Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) reinforced with chemically modified Al2O3: synthesis and characterization, J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys., 52 (2013) 1651–1661.
  45. S. Mallakpour, M. Zhiani, A. Barati, H. Rostami, Improving the direct methanol fuel cell performance with poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium dioxide nanocomposites as a novel electrolyte additive, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 38 (2013) 12418–12426.
  46. R.Y.M. Huang, Pervaporation Membrane Separation Processes, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, New York, 1991, pp. 53–278.
  47. D. Han, L. Yan, W. Chen, W. Li, Preparation of chitosan/ graphene oxide composite film with enhanced mechanical strength in the wet state, Carbohydr. Polym., 83 (2011) 653–658.
  48. T. Kobayashi, M. Yoshimoto, K. Nakao, Preparation and characterization of immobilized chelate extractant in PVA gel beads for an efficient recovery of copper(II) in aqueous solution, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49 (2010) 11652–11660.
  49. N.W. Choi, M. Cabodi, B. Held, J.P. Gleghorn, L.J. Bonassar, A.D. Strook, Microfluidic scaffolds for tissue engineering, Nat. Mater., 6 (2007) 908–915.
  50. A.W. Chan, R.J. Neufeld, Tuneable semi-synthetic network alginate for absorptive encapsulation and controlled release of protein therapeutics, Biomaterials, 31 (2010) 9040–9047.
  51. R.H. Li, D.H. Altreuter, F.T. Gentile, Transport characterization of hydrogel matrices for cell encapsulation, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 50 (1996) 365–373.
  52. M. Hepel, L. Dentrone, Controlled incorporation of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and their electrorelease using composite polypyrrole films, Electroanalysis, 8 (1996) 996–1005.
  53. M. Chan, S. Ng, Effect of membrane properties on contact angle, AIP Conf. Proc., 6 (2016) 020035–1/020035–6.
  54. Y. Yu, G. Zhang, L. Ye, Preparation and adsorption mechanism of polyvinyl alcohol/graphene oxide sodium alginate nanocomposite hydrogel with high Pb(II) adsorption capacity, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 136 (2019) 47318, doi: 10.1002/app.47318.
  55. H. Zheng, J. Yang, S. Han, The synthesis and characteristics of sodium alginate/graphene oxide composite films crosslinked with multivalent cations, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 133 (2016) 1–7.
  56. H. Liu, P. Bandyopadhyay, N.H. Kim, B. Moon, J.H. Lee, Surface modified graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite for enhanced hydrogen gas barrier film, Polym. Test., 50 (2016) 49–56.
  57. G. Yang, L. Zhang, T. Peng, W. Zhong, Effects of Ca2+ bridge cross-linking on structure and pervaporation of cellulose/alginate blend membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 175 (2000) 53–60.
  58. S. Jana, M.K. Trivedi, R.M. Tallapragada, A. Branton, D. Trivedi, G. Nayak, R.K. Mishra, Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties of chitosan and sodium alginate after biofield treatment, Pharm. Anal. Acta, 6 (2015) 2135–2435.
  59. G. Attia, M.F.H. Abd El-kader, Structural optical and thermal characterization of PVA/2HEC polyblend films, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 5672–5687.
  60. S.B. Hua, H.Z. Ma, X. Li, H.X. Yang, A.Q. Wang, pH sensitive sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads prepared by combined Ca2+ crosslinking and freeze-thawing cycles for controlled release of diclofenac sodium, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 46 (2010) 517–523.
  61. W.M. Algothmi, N.M. Bandaru, Y. Yu, J.G. Shapter, A.V. Ellis, Alginate-graphene oxide hybrid gel beads: an efficient copper adsorbent material, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 397 (2013) 32–38.
  62. L. Sun, B. Fugetsu, Graphene oxide captured for green use: influence on the structures of calcium alginate and macroporous alginic beads and their application to aqueous removal of acridine orange, Chem. Eng. J., 240 (2014) 565–573.
  63. V.K. Malesu, D. Sahoo, P.L. Nayak, Chitosan–sodium alginate nanocomposites blended 258 with cloisite 30B as a novel drug delivery system for anticancer drug curcumin, Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm., 2 (2011) 402–411.
  64. Y.Q. He, N.N. Zhang, Q.J. Gong, H.X. Qiu, W. Wang, Y. Liu, J.P. Gao, Alginate/graphene oxide fibers with enhanced mechanical strength prepared by wet spinning, Carbohydr. Polym., 88 (2012) 1100–1108.
  65. C.L. Jiao, P.G. Xiong, J. Tao, S.J. Xu, D.S. Zhang, H. Lin, Y.Y. Chen, Sodium alginate/graphene oxide aerogel with enhanced strength-toughness and its heavy metal adsorption study, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 83 (2016) 133–141.
  66. S.Q. Gong, Z.J. Jiang, P.H. Shi, J.C. Fan, Q.J. Xu, Y.L. Min, Noble metal-free heterostructure for efficient hydrogen evolution in visible region: molybdenum nitride/ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride, Appl. Catal., B, 238 (2018) 318–327.
  67. Z.Q. Wang, P.X. Jin, M. Wang, G.H. Wu, J.Y. Sun, Y.J. Zhang, C. Dong, A.G. Wu, Highly efficient removal of toxic Pb2+ from wastewater by an alginate-chitosan hybrid adsorbent, Technol. Biotechnol., 93 (2018) 2691–2700.
  68. M. Xie, F. Zhang, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Li, J. Xie, Surface modification of graphene oxide nanosheets by protamine sulfate/sodium alginate for anti-cancer drug delivery application, Appl. Surf. Sci., 440 (2018) 853–860.
  69. S. Amiri, A. Asghari, V. Vatanpour, M. Rajabi, Fabrication and characterization of a novel polyvinyl alcohol-graphene-sodium alginate nanocomposite hydrogel blended PES nanofiltration membrane for improved water purification, Sep. Purif. Technol., 250 (2020) 117216, doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117216.
  70. C.K. Yeom, K.H. LEE, Characterization of sodium alginate membrane crosslinked with glutaraldehyde in pervaporation separation, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 67 (1998) 209–219.
  71. C. Liu, H. Liu, T. Xiong, A. Xu, B. Pan, K. Tang, Graphene oxide reinforced alginate/PVA double network hydrogels for efficient dye removal, Polymers, 10 (2018) 1–14.
  72. J. Bajdik, Z. Makai, O. Berkesi, K. Suvegh, T. Marek, I. Eros, K. Pintye-Hodi, Study of the effect of lactose on the structure of sodium alginate films, Carbohydr. Polym., 77 (2009) 530–535.
  73. G. Socrates, Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies: Tables and Charts, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England, 2001, 366 pp.
  74. Q.S. Kong, B.B. Wang, Q. Ji, Y.Z. Xia, Z.X. Guo, J. Yu, Thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers, Chin. J. Polym. Sci., 27 (2009) 807–812.
  75. M. Khajouei, M. Najafi, S.A. Jafari, Development of ultrafiltration membrane via in-situ grafting of nano-GO/PSF with antibiofouling properties, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 142 (2019) 34–43.