References

- E. Delyannis, Historic background of desalination and renewable energies, Sol. Energy, 75 (2003) 357–366.
- G.N. Tiwari, H.N. Singh, R. Tripathi, Present status of solar distillation, Sol. Energy, 75 (2003) 367–373.
- R. Dev, G.N. Tiwari, Characteristic equation of a passive solar still, Desalination, 245 (2009) 246–265.
- R. Dev, H.N. Singh, G.N. Tiwari, Characteristic equation of double slope passive solar still, Desalination, 267 (2011) 261–266.
- R. Dev, G.N. Tiwari, Characteristic equation of the inverted absorber solar still, Desalination, 269 (2011) 67–77.
- R. Dev, G.N. Tiwari, Characteristic equation of a hybrid (PV-T) active solar still, Desalination, 254 (2010) 126–137.
- R. Dev, S.A. Abdul-Wahab, G.N. Tiwari, Performance study of the inverted absorber solar still with water depth and total dissolved solid, Appl. Energy, 88 (2011) 252–264.
- H.S. Soliman, Solar still coupled with a solar water heater, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, 1976.
- S.N. Rai, G.N. Tiwari, Single basin solar still coupled with flat plate collector, Energy Convers. Manage., 23 (1983) 145–149.
- S.A. Lawrence, G.N. Tiwari, Theoretical evaluation of solar distillation under natural circulation with heat exchanger, Energy Convers. Manage., 30 (1990) 205–213.
- S. Kumar, G.N. Tiwari, Optimization of daily yield for an active double effect distillation with water flow, Energy Convers. Manage., 40 (1999) 703–715.
- M.K. Gaur, G.N. Tiwari, Optimization of number of collectors for integrated PV/T hybrid active solar still, Appl. Energy, 87 (2010) 1763–1772.
- Shyam, G.N. Tiwari, I.M. Al-Helal, Analytical expression of
temperature dependent electrical efficiency

of N-PVT water collectors connected in series, Sol. Energy, 114 (2015) 61–76. - Shyam, G.N. Tiwari, O. Fischer, R.K. Mishra, I.M. Al-Helal, Performance evaluation of N-photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collectors partially covered by photovoltaic module connected in series: an experimental study, Sol. Energy, 130 (2016) 302–313.
- M. Boukar, A. Harmim, Performance evaluation of a one-sided vertical solar still tested in the desert of Algeria, Desalination, 183 (2005) 113–126.
- R. Dev, G.N. Tiwari, Annual performance of evacuated tubular collector integrated solar still, Desal. Water Treat., 41 (2012) 204–223.
- G.N. Tiwari, L. Sahota, Review on the energy and economic efficiencies of passive and active solar distillation systems, Desalination, 401 (2017) 151–179.
- M.A. Khairul, R. Saidur, M.M. Rahman, M.A. Alim, A. Hossain,
Z. Abdin, Heat transfer and thermodynamic analyses of
a helically coiled heat exchanger using different types of
nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,

67 (2013) 398–403. - O. Mahian, A. Kianifar, A.Z. Sahin, S. Wongwises, Performance analysis of a minichannel-based solar collector using different nanofluids, Energy Convers. Manage., 88 (2014) 129–138.
- A. Mwesigye, Z. Huan, J.P. Meyer, Thermal performance and entropy generation analysis of a high concentration ratio parabolic trough solar collector with Cu-Therminol®VP-1 nanofluid, Energy Convers. Manage., 120 (2016) 449–465.
- R. Tripathi, G.N. Tiwari, Energetic and exergetic analysis of N partially covered photovoltaic thermal-compound parabolic concentrator (PVT-CPC) collectors connected in series, Sol. Energy, 137 (2016) 441–451.
- D. Atheaya, A. Tiwari, G.N. Tiwari, I.M. Al-Helal, Analytical characteristic equation for partially covered photovoltaic thermal (PVT) compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), Sol. Energy, 111 (2015) 176–185.
- Dharamveer, Samsher, D.B. Singh, A.K. Singh, N. Kumar, Solar Distiller Unit Loaded with Nanofluid—A Short Review, M. Kumar, R. Pandey, V. Kumar, Eds., Advances in Interdisciplinary Engineering, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Singapore, 2019, pp. 241–247.
- S. Dubey, G.N. Tiwari, Analysis of PV/T flat plate water collectors connected in series, Sol. Energy, 83 (2009) 1485–1498.
- C.J. Popiel, J. Wojtkowiak, Simple formulas for thermophysical properties of liquid water for heat transfer calculations (from 0°C to 150°C), Heat Transfer Eng., 19 (1998) 87–101.
- Y. Raja Sekhar, K.V. Sharma, Study of viscosity and specific
heat capacity characteristics of water-based Al
_{2}O_{3}nanofluids at low particle concentrations, J. Exp. Nanosci., 10 (2015) 86–102. - T. Yiamsawasd, A.S. Dalkilic, S. Wongwises, Measurement of
specific heat of nanofluids,

Curr. Nanosci., 8 (2012) 939–944. - B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles, Exp. Heat Transfer J. Therm. Energy Gener. Transp. Storage Convers., 11 (1998) 151–170.
- K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, A critical synthesis of thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54 (2011) 4410–4428.
- H.K. Patel, T. Sundararajan, S.K. Das, An experimental investigation into the thermal conductivity enhancement in oxide and metallic nanofluids, J. Nanopart. Res., 12 (2010) 1015–1031.
- K. Sharma, P. Sharma, W. Azmi, R. Mamat, K. Kadirgama, Correlations to predict friction and forced convection heat transfer coefficients of water based nanofluids for turbulent flow in a tube, Int. J. Micro-Sci. Nanoscale Therm. Fluid Transport Phenom., 3 (2010) 283–308.
- K.S. Wang, J.-H. Lee, S.P. Jang, Buoyancy-driven heat transfer of
water-based Al
_{2}O_{3}nanofluids in a rectangular cavity, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50 (2007) 4003–4010. - C.J. Ho, M.W. Chen, Z.W. Li, Numerical simulation of natural convection of nanofluid in a square enclosure: effects due to uncertainties of viscosity and thermal conductivity, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51 (2008) 4506–4516.
- O. Mahian, A. Kianifar, A.Z. Sahin, S. Wongwises, Entropy
generation during Al
_{2}O_{3}water nanofluid flow in a solar collector: effects of tube roughness, nanoparticle size, and different thermophysical models, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 78 (2014) 64–75. - C.F. Colebrook, Turbulent flow in pipes, with particular reference to the transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws, J. Inst. Civ. Eng., 11 (1939) 133–156.
- A. Menbari, A.A. Alemrajabi, A. Rezaei, Heat transfer analysis and the effect of CuO/water nanofluid on direct absorption concentrating solar collector, Appl. Therm. Eng., 104 (2016) 176–183.
- G.N. Tiwari, A.K. Tiwari, Solar Distillation Practice for Water Desalination Systems, Anamaya Publications, New Delhi, 2007.
- G.N. Tiwari, Solar Energy: Fundamentals, Design, Modelling and Applications, CRC Publication/Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi/New York, 2002.
- Dharamveer, Samsher, Comparative analysis of energy matrices and enviro-economics for active and passive solar still, Mater. Today:. Proc., 45 (2021) 6046–6052.
- R. Balan, J. Chandrasekaran, S. Shanmugan, B. Janarthanan, S. Kumar, Review on passive solar distillation, Desal. Water Treat., 28 (2012) 217–238.
- H. Prasad, P. Kumar, R.K. Yadav, A. Mallick, N. Kumar, D.B. Singh, Sensitivity analysis of N identical partially covered (50%) PVT compound parabolic concentrator collectors integrated double slope solar distiller unit, Desal. Water Treat., 153 (2019) 54–64.
- S.K. Sharma, D.B. Singh, A. Mallick, S.K. Gupta, Energy metrics and efficiency analyses of double slope solar distiller unit augmented with N identical parabolic concentrator integrated evacuated tubular collectors: a comparative study, Desal. Water Treat., 195 (2020) 40–56.
- K. Bharti, S. Manwal, C. Kishore, R.K. Yadav, P. Tiwari, D.B. Singh, Sensitivity analysis of N alike partly covered PVT flat plate collectors integrated double slope solar distiller unit, Desal. Water Treat., 211 (2021) 45–59.
- D.B. Singh, N. Kumar, Harender, S. Kumar, S.K. Sharma, A. Mallick, Effect of depth of water on various efficiencies and productivity of N identical partially covered PVT collectors incorporated single slope solar distiller unit, Desal. Water Treat., 138 (2019) 99–112.
- D.B. Singh, A.K. Singh, N. Kumar, V.K. Dwivedi, J.K. Yadav,
G. Singh, Performance analysis of Special Design Single Basin
Passive Solar Distillation Systems: A Comprehensive Review,
A. Prasad, S. Gupta, R. Tyagi, Eds., Advances in Engineering
Design, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, Springer,
Singapore, 2019,

pp. 301–310. - D.B. Singh, G. Singh, N. Kumar, P.K. Singh, A. Nirala, R. Kumar, Effect of mass flow rate on energy payback time of single slope solar desalination unit coupled with N identical compound parabolic concentrator collectors, Mater. Today:. Proc., 28 (2020) 2551–2556.
- G.K. Sharma, N. Kumar, D.B. Singh, A. Mallick, Exergoeconoic analysis of single slope solar desalination unit coupled with PVT-CPCs by incorporating the effect of dissimilarity of the rate of flowing fluid mass, Mater. Today:. Proc., 28 (2020) 2364–2368.
- V.S. Gupta, D.B. Singh, S.K. Sharma, N. Kumar, T.S. Bhatti, G.N. Tiwari, Modeling self-sustainable fully-covered photovoltaic thermal-compound parabolic concentrator s connected to double slope solar distiller, Desal. Water Treat., 190 (2020) 12–27.
- A.K. Singh, D.B. Singh, V.K. Dwivedi, N. Kumar, J.K. Yadav, A Review of Performance Enhancement in Solar Desalination Systems with the Application of Nanofluids, 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking (ICACCCN), IEEE, Greater Noida, India, 2018.
- L. Sahota, G.N. Tiwari, Exergoeconomic and enviroeconomic analyses of hybrid double slope solar still loaded with nanofluids, Energy Convers. Manage., 148 (2017) 413–430.
- L. Sahota, Shyam, G.N. Tiwari, Analytical characteristic equation of nanofluid loaded active double slope solar still coupled with helically coiled heat exchanger, Energy Convers. Manage., 135 (2017) 308–326.
- MathWorks Inc., MATLAB-R2016a (9.0.0.341360), 2016.