1. A.K. Singla, M. Chawla, Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects — an update, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 53 (2001) 1047–1067.
  2. M. Rinaudo, Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications, Prog. Polym. Sci., 31 (2006) 603–632.
  3. M.N.R. Kumar, A review of chitin and chitosan applications, React. Funct. Polym., 46 (2000) 1–27.
  4. Q.F. Alsalhy, H.A. Salih, S. Simone, M. Zablouk, E. Drioli, A. Figoli, Poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow-fiber membranes prepared from various spinning parameters, Desalination, 345 (2014) 21–35.
  5. Y. Zhang, X. Yu, S. Gong, C. Ye, Z. Fan, H. Lin, Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 98 (2014) 1309–1320.
  6. M. Zhang, K. Zhang, B. De Gusseme, W. Verstraete, Biogenic silver nanoparticles (bio-Ag0) decrease biofouling of bio-Ag0/PES nanocomposite membranes, Water Res., 46 (2012) 2077–2087.
  7. O. Choi, K.K. Deng, N.-J. Kim, L. Ross, R.Y. Surampalli, Z. Hu, The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth, Water Res., 42 (2008) 3066–3074.
  8. D. Rana, T. Matsuura, Surface modifications for antifouling membranes, Chem. Rev., 110 (2010) 2448–2471.
  9. S. Kappachery, D. Paul, J. Yoon, J.H. Kweon, Vanillin, a potential agent to prevent biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane, Biofouling, 26 (2010) 667–672.
  10. N. Hilal, V. Kochkodan, L. Al-Khatib, T. Levadna, Surface modified polymeric membranes to reduce (bio) fouling: a microbiological study using E. coli, Desalination, 167 (2004) 293–300.
  11. H.-L. Yang, J. Chun-Te Lin, C. Huang, Application of nanosilver surface modification to RO membrane and spacer for mitigating biofouling in seawater desalination, Water Res., 43 (2009) 3777–3786.
  12. X. Cao, M. Tang, F. Liu, Y. Nie, C. Zhao, Immobilization of silver nanoparticles onto sulfonated polyethersulfone membranes as antibacterial materials, Colloids Surf., B, 81 (2010) 555–562.
  13. D.S. Wavhal, E.R. Fisher, Hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone membranes by low temperature plasmainduced graft polymerization, J. Membr. Sci., 209 (2002) 255–269.
  14. M.N. Abu Seman, D. Johnson, S. Al-Malek, N. Hilal, Surface modification of nanofiltration membrane for reduction of membrane fouling, Desal. Water Treat., 10 (2009) 298–305.
  15. W. Zhao, J. Huang, B. Fang, S. Nie, N. Yi, B. Su, H. Li, C. Zhao, Modification of polyethersulfone membrane by blending semiinterpenetrating network polymeric nanoparticles, J. Membr. Sci., 369 (2011) 258–266.
  16. Y. Zhang, J. Guo, G. Han, Y. Bai, Q. Ge, J. Ma, C.H. Lau, L. Shao, Molecularly soldered covalent organic frameworks for ultrafast precision sieving, Sci. Adv., 7 (2021) eabe8706, doi: 10.1126/ sciadv.abe8706.
  17. M. Amin, A. Alazba, U. Manzoor, A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2014 (2014) 1–24.
  18. R.L. Davies, S.F. Etris, The development and functions of silver in water purification and disease control, Catal. Today, 36 (1997) 107–114.
  19. Q. Feng, J. Wu, G. Chen, F. Cui, T. Kim, J. Kim, A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 52 (2000) 662–668.
  20. I. Sondi, B. Salopek-Sondi, Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 275 (2004) 177–182.
  21. V. Alt, T. Bechert, P. Steinrücke, M. Wagener, P. Seidel, E. Dingeldein, E. Domann, R. Schnettler, An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity of nanoparticulate silver bone cement, Biomaterials, 25 (2004) 4383–4391.
  22. N. Daneshvar, M. Behnajady, Y.Z. Asghar, Photooxidative degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in UV/H2O2 process: influence of operational parameters and reaction mechanism, J. Hazard. Mater., 139 (2007) 275–279.
  23. Z.I. Bhatti, H. Toda, K. Furukawa, p-nitrophenol degradation by activated sludge attached on nonwovens, Water Res., 36 (2002) 1135–1142.
  24. Y. Shi, X.-L. Zhang, G. Feng, X. Chen, Z.-H. Lu, Ag–SiO2 nanocomposites with plum-pudding structure as catalyst for hydrogenation of 4-Nitrophenol, Ceram. Int., 41 (2015) 14660–14667.
  25. S.A. Khan, S.B. Khan, A.M. Asiri, Core–shell cobalt oxide mesoporous silica based efficient electro-catalyst for oxygen evolution, New J. Chem., 39 (2015) 5561–5569.
  26. B. Qian, J. Li, Q. Wei, P. Bai, B. Fang, C. Zhao, Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive polyethersulfone hollow fiber membrane for flux control, J. Membr. Sci., 344 (2009) 297–303.
  27. D. Wang, Q. Wei, Y. Zhang, C. Zhao, Molecularly imprinted polyethersulfone microfibers for the binding and recognition of bisphenol A, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 114 (2009) 4036–4041.
  28. K. Yang, Z. Liu, M. Mao, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, N. Nishi, Molecularly imprinted polyethersulfone microspheres for the binding and recognition of bisphenol A, Anal. Chim. Acta, 546 (2005) 30–36.
  29. W.L. Chou, D.G. Yu, M.C. Yang, The preparation and characterization of silver‐loading cellulose acetate hollow fiber membrane for water treatment, Polym. Adv. Technol., 16 (2005) 600–607.
  30. J.G. Cappuccino, N. Sherman, Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
  31. Y.-n. Yang, W. Jun, Z. Qing-zhu, C. Xue-si, Z. Hui-xuan, The research of rheology and thermodynamics of organic–inorganic hybrid membrane during the membrane formation, J. Membr. Sci., 311 (2008) 200–207.
  32. C.A. Smolders, A.J. Reuvers, R.M. Boom, I.M. Wienk, Microstructures in phase-inversion membranes. Part 1. Formation of macrovoids, J. Membr. Sci., 73 (1992) 259–275.
  33. Z. Fan, Z. Wang, N. Sun, J. Wang, S. Wang, Performance improvement of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane by blending with polyaniline nanofibers, J. Membr. Sci., 320 (2008) 363–371.
  34. R.J. Gohari, E. Halakoo, N. Nazri, W.J. Lau, T. Matsuura, A.F. Ismail, Improving performance and antifouling capability of PES UF membranes via blending with highly hydrophilic hydrous manganese dioxide nanoparticles, Desalination, 335 (2014) 87–95.
  35. E. Saljoughi, T. Mohammadi, Cellulose acetate (CA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend asymmetric membranes: preparation, morphology and performance, Desalination, 249 (2009) 850–854.
  36. L. Shen, X. Bian, X. Lu, L. Shi, Z. Liu, L. Chen, Z. Hou, K. Fan, Preparation and characterization of ZnO/polyethersulfone (PES) hybrid membranes, Desalination, 293 (2012) 21–29.
  37. E.S. Jang, S.B. Khan, J. Seo, K. Akhtar, J. Choi, K.I. Kim, H. Han, Synthesis and characterization of novel UV-curable PU-Si hybrids: influence of silica on thermal, mechanical, and water sorption properties of polyurethane acrylates, Macromol. Res., 19 (2011) 1006–1013.
  38. S.B. Khan, J.-W. Lee, H.M. Marwani, K. Akhtar, A.M. Asiri, J. Seo, A.A.P. Khan, H. Han, Polybenzimidazole hybrid membranes as a selective adsorbent of mercury, Composites, Part B, 56 (2014) 392–396.
  39. D. Kim, M. Jang, J. Seo, K.-H. Nam, H. Han, S.B. Khan, UV-cured poly (urethane acrylate) composite films containing surfacemodified tetrapod ZnO whiskers, Compos. Sci. Technol., 75 (2013) 84–92.
  40. D. Kim, Y. Lee, J. Seo, H. Han, S.B. Khan, Preparation and properties of poly(urethane acrylate)(PUA) and tetrapod ZnO whisker (TZnO‐W) composite films, Polym. Int., 62 (2013) 257–265.
  41. J. Seo, G. Jeon, E.S. Jang, S. Bahadar Khan, H. Han, Preparation and properties of poly (propylene carbonate) and nanosized ZnO composite films for packaging applications, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122 (2011) 1101–1108.
  42. Y. Lee, D. Kim, J. Seo, H. Han, S.B. Khan, CuO embedded chitosan spheres as antibacterial adsorbent for dyes, Polym. Int., 62 (2013) 1386–1394.
  43. M. Lim, H. Kwon, D. Kim, J. Seo, H. Han, S.B. Khan, Highlyenhanced water resistant and oxygen barrier properties of cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol) hybrid films for packaging applications, Prog. Org. Coat., 85 (2015) 68–75.
  44. K.-H. Nam, K. Seo, J. Seo, S.B. Khan, H. Han, Ultravioletcurable polyurethane acrylate nanocomposite coatings based on surface-modified calcium carbonate, Prog. Org. Coat., 85 (2015) 22–30.
  45. J.-N. Shen, H.-M. Ruan, L.-G. Wu, C.-J. Gao, Preparation and characterization of PEG-g-MWCNTs/PSf nano-hybrid membranes with hydrophilicity and antifouling properties, Chem. Eng. J., 168 (2011) 1272–1278.
  46. X. Li, J. Li, B.V.D. Bruggen, X. Sun, J. Shen, W. Han, L. Wang, Fouling behavior of polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with sol–gel formed ZnO nanoparticles, RSC Adv., 5 (2015) 50711–50719.
  47. S.B. Khan, K.A. Alamry, E.N. Bifari, A.M. Asiri, M. Yasir, L. Gzara, R.Z. Ahmad, Assessment of antibacterial cellulose nanocomposites for water permeability and salt rejection, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 24 (2015) 266–275.
  48. K.S. Kim, K.H. Lee, K. Cho, C.E. Park, Surface modification of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane by oxygen plasma treatment, J. Membr. Sci., 199 (2002) 135–145.
  49. D.Y. Koseoglu-Imer, B. Kose, M. Altinbas, I. Koyuncu, The production of polysulfone (PS) membrane with silver nanoparticles (AgNP): physical properties, filtration performances, and biofouling resistances of membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 428 (2013) 620–628.
  50. Y.-N. Wang, C.Y. Tang, Protein fouling of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration membranes—the role of hydrodynamic conditions, solution chemistry, and membrane properties, J. Membr. Sci., 376 (2011) 275–282.
  51. Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, F. Li, Y. Bai, Y. Pan, J. Ma, S. Zhang, L. Shao, Ultra-robust superwetting hierarchical membranes constructed by coordination complex networks for oily water treatment, J. Membr. Sci., 627 (2021) 119234, doi: 10.1016/j. memsci.2021.119234.