1. E. Drioli, A. Ali, F Macedonio, Membrane distillation: recent developments and perspectives, Desalination, 356 (2015) 56–84.
  2. A. Alkhudhiri, N. Darwish, N. Hilal, Membrane distillation: a comprehensive review, Desalination, 287 (2012) 2–18.
  3. P. Wang, T.S. Chung, Recent advances in membrane distillation processes: membrane development, configuration design and application exploring, J. Membr. Sci., 474 (2015) 39–56.
  4. K.W. Lawson, D.R. Lloyd, Membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 120 (1996) 123–133.
  5. A.M. Alklaibi, N. Lior, Membrane-distillation desalination: status and potential, J. Membr. Sci., 171 (2004) 111–131.
  6. S.O. Olatunji, L.M. Camacho, Heat and mass transport in modeling membrane distillation configuration: a review, Frontier Energy Res., 6 (2018) 130.
  7. H. Chang, J.A. Hsu, C.L. Chang, C.D. Ho, T.W. Chen, Simulation study of transfer characteristics for spacer-filled membrane distillation desalination modules, Appl. Energy, 185 (2017) 2045–2057.
  8. J. Phattaranawik, R. Jiraratananon, G.A. Fane, Heat transport and membrane distillation coefficients in direct contact membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 212 (2003) 177–193.
  9. C.D. Ho, H. Chang, C.L. Chang, C.H. Huang, Theoretical and experimental studies of performance enhancement with roughened surface in direct contact membrane distillation desalination, J. Membr. Sci., 433 (2013) 160–166.
  10. X. Yang, H. Yu, R. Wang, A.G. Fane, Analysis of the effect of turbulence promoters in hollow fiber membrane distillation modules by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, J. Membr. Sci., 415–416 (2012) 758–769.
  11. M. Shakaib, S.F. Hasani, I. Ahmed, R.M. Yunus, A CFD study on the effect of spacer orientation on temperature polarization in membrane distillation modules, Desalination, 284 (2012) 332–340.
  12. Y. Dong, X.D. Dai, L. Zhao, L. Gao, Z. Xie, J.H. Zhang, Review of transport phenomena and popular Modelling approaches in membrane distillation, Membranes, 11 (2021) 122–148.
  13. K. Zhao, W. Heinzl, M. Wenzel, S. Büttner, F. Bollen, G. Lange, S. Heinzl, N. Sarda, Experimental study of the memsys vacuum-multi-effect-membrane-distillation (V-MEMD) module, Desalination, 323 (2013) 150–160.
  14. J.H. Hanemaaijer, MemstillsÒ – low cost membrane distillation technology for seawater desalination, Desalination, 168 (2004) 355–356.
  15. H. Geng, H. Wu, P. Li, Q. He, Study on a new air-gap membrane distillation module for distillation, Desalination, 334 (2014) 29–38.
  16. D. Singh, K.K. Sirkar, Desalination by air gap membrane distillation using a two hollow-fiber-set membrane module, J. Membr. Sci., 421–422 (2012) 172–179.
  17. A.E. Khalifa, S.M. Alawad, Air gap and water gap multistage membrane distillation for water desalination, Desalination, 437 (2018) 175–183.
  18. A. Omar, A. Nashed, R. Taylor, Single vs. Multi-Stage Vacuum Membrane Distillation: An Energetic Analysis, Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Heat and Mass Transfer Conference 2018, AHMTC 11, Melbourne, Australia, 2018.
  19. A.R. Da Costa, A.G. Fane, D.E. Wiley, Spacer characterization and pressure drop modelling in spacer-filled channels for ultrafiltration, J. Membr. Sci., 87 (1994) 79–98.
  20. C.D. Ho, L. Chen, K.Y. Wu, C.H. Ni, T.L. Chew, Permeate flux enhancement with a helical wired concentric tube in air gap membrane distillation systems, Desal. Water Treat.t, 202 (2020) 150–168.
  21. K.W. Lawson, D.R. Lloyd, Membrane distillation, J. Membr. Sci., 124 (1997) 1–25.
  22. R.W. Schofield, A.G. Fane, C.J.D. Fell, Gas and vapor transport through microporous membranes. I. Knudsen-Poiseuille transition, J. Membr. Sci., 53 (1990) 159–171.
  23. S.B. Iversen, V.K. Bhatia, K. Dam-Jphasen, G. Jonsson, Characterization of microporous membranes for use in membrane contactors, J. Membr. Sci., 130 (1997) 205–217.
  24. G.L. Liu, C. Zhu, C.S. Cheung, C.W. Leung, Theoretical and experimental studies on air gap membrane distillation, Heat Mass Transfer, 34 (1998) 329–335.
  25. F.A. Banat, J. Simandl, Membrane distillation for dilute ethanol separation from aqueous streams, J. Membr. Sci., 163 (1999) 333–348.
  26. S.B. Warner, Fiber Science, Princeton-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.
  27. J. Phattaranawik, R. Jiraratananon, A.G. Fane, Effects of net-type spacers on heat and mass transfer in direct contact membrane distillation and comparison with ultrafiltration studies, J. Membr. Sci., 217 (2003) 193–206.
  28. J.R. Welty, C.E. Wick, R.E. Wilson, Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer, 3th ed.,
    John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.
  29. S. Kakac, R.K. Shah, W. Aung, Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York, 1987.
  30. R.J. Moffat, Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 1 (1988) 3–17.