1. O. Strebel, W.H.M. Duynisveld, J. Böttcher, Nitrate pollution of groundwater in western Europe, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 26 (1989) 189–214.
  2. S. Vasudevan, J. Lakshmi, J. Jayaraj, G. Sozhan, Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes, J. Hazard. Mater., 164 (2009) 1480–1486.
  3. J.N. Pretty, C.F. Mason, D.B. Nedwell, R.E. Hine, S. Leaf, R. Dils, Environmental costs of freshwater eutrophication in England and Wales, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37 (2003) 201–208.
  4. I.R. Falconer, An overview of problems caused by toxic blue–green algae (cyanobacteria) in drinking and recreational water, Environ. Toxicol., An Int. J., 14 (1999) 5–12.
  5. V.H. Smith, Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 10 (2003) 126–139.
  6. M. Alvarez Cobelas, A. Rubio Olmo, P. Muñoz Ruiz, Eutrophication in Spanish freshwater ecosystems, Limnetica, 8 (1992) 263–266.
  7. WHO, The World Health Report 2006: Working Together for Health, World Health Organization, 2006. Available at:
  8. M. Vithanage, P. Bhattacharya, Fluoride in the environment: sources, distribution and defluoridation, Environ. Chem. Lett., 13 (2015) 131–147.
  9. K. Gomoro, F. Zewge, B. Hundhammer, N. Megersa, Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soil, Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 26 (2012) 361–372.
  10. C.B. Dissanayake, The fluoride problem in the ground water of Sri Lanka — environmental management and health, Int. J. Environ. Stud., 38 (1991) 137–155.
  11. K.V. Raghava Rao, K.R. Bogoda, N.S. Nilaweera, P.H.D.S. De Silva, Mapping High Fluoride Content in Groundwater of Sri Lanka, National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Sri Lanka and World Health Organisation, 1987.
  12. R. Fuhong, J. Shuqin, Distribution and formation of highfluorine groundwater in China, Environ. Geol. Water Sci., 12 (1988) 3–10.
  13. C. Chen, W. Zhang, A Nationwide Survey on Drinking Water Quality and Water Borne Diseases in China, Beijing Institute of Environmental Health and Monitoring, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, 1988,
    pp. 95–99.
  14. A. Bhatnagar, E. Kumar, M. Sillanpää, Fluoride removal from water by adsorption—a review, Chem. Eng. J., 171 (2011) 811–840.
  15. WHO, Ś.O. Zdrowia, World Report on Knowledge for Better Health: Strengthening Health Systems, World Health Organization, 2004. Available at:
  16. B. Apparao, S. Meenakshi, G. Karthikayan, Nalgonada technique of defluoridation of water, Indian J. Environ. Prot., 10 (1990) 292–298.
  17. M.J. Haron, W.M. Yunus, Removal of fluoride ion from aqueous solution by a cerium-poly(hydroxamic acid) resin complex, J. Environ. Sci. Health. Part A Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 36 (2001) 727–734.
  18. Y. Ku, H.-M. Chiou, W. Wang, The removal of fluoride ion from aqueous solution by a cation synthetic resin, Sep. Sci. Technol., 37 (2002) 89–103.
  19. A. Dhillon, S. Prasad, D. Kumar, Recent advances and spectroscopic perspectives in fluoride removal, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev., 52 (2017) 175–230.
  20. A. Iriel, S.P. Bruneel, N. Schenone, A.F. Cirelli, The removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by a lateritic soil adsorption: kinetic and equilibrium studies, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 149 (2018) 166–172.
  21. L. Zhang, S. Hong, J. He, F. Gan, Y.-S. Ho, Adsorption characteristic studies of phosphorus onto laterite, Desal. Water Treat., 25 (2011) 98–105.
  22. J. Yang, L. Zhou, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Yin, G. Wei, K. Qian, Y. Wang, C. Yu, A designed nanoporous material for phosphate removal with high efficiency, J. Mater. Chem., 21 (2011) 2489–2494.
  23. L. Zhang, L. Wan, N. Chang, J. Liu, C. Duan, Q. Zhou, X. Li, X. Wang, Removal of phosphate from water by activated carbon fiber loaded with lanthanum oxide, J. Hazard. Mater., 190 (2011) 848–855.
  24. L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, J. Liu, N. Chang, L. Wan, J. Chen, Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum hydroxide-doped activated carbon fiber, Chem. Eng. J., 185 (2012) 160–167.
  25. J. Liu, L. Wan, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, Effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the phosphate adsorption onto lanthanumdoped activated carbon fiber, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 364 (2011) 490–496.
  26. P.K. Banerjee, Basic research on laterites in tropical countries, Quat. Int., 51–52 (1998) 69–72.
  27. L. Pereira-De-Oliveira, L. Macedo, J. Neto, D. Santos, H. Silva, Viability of lateritic soil as alkaline activated precursor, MATEC Web Conf., 274 (2019) 01004, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201927401004.
  28. L. Zhang, W. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Zhou, J. Luo, J. Zhang, X. Wang, Removal of phosphate from water using raw and activated laterite: batch and column studies, Desal. Water Treat., 52 (2014) 778–783.
  29. D. Kodikara, R.D.H.A. Kumara, G.G.T. Chaminda, T. Kawakami, Fluoride and Hardness Removal from Groundwater by Electrolysis System with Carbon Electrodes, in 3rd International Symposium on Advances in Civil and Environmental Engineering Practices for Sustainable Development (ACEPS– 2015), Galle, Sri Lanka, 2015.
  30. S. Mitra, L.S. Thakur, V.K. Rathore, P. Mondal, Removal of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) by laterite soil from synthetic waste water: single and bi-component adsorption approach, Desal. Water Treat., 57 (2016) 18406–18416.
  31. I.V.K. Nayanthika, D.T. Jayawardana, N.J.G.J. Bandara, P.M. Manage, R.M.T.D. Madushanka, Effective use of ironaluminum rich laterite based soil mixture for treatment of landfill leachate, Waste Manage., 74 (2018) 347–361.
  32. D.T. Jayawardana, H.M.T.G.A. Pitawala, H. Ishiga, Assessment of soil geochemistry around some selected agricultural sites of Sri Lanka, Environ. Earth Sci., 71 (2014) 4097–4106.
  33. A. Beauvais, Geochemical balance of lateritization processes and climatic signatures in weathering profiles overlain by ferricretes in Central Africa, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63 (1999) 3939–3957.
  34. N.U. Sandali Dissanayake, P.G. Heshani Pupulewatte, D.T. Jayawardana, Formulation and evaluation of a laterite soil based scrubbing effect herbal cleansing bar, J. Drug Delivery Ther., 12 (2022) 91–96.
  35. M. Vithanage, L. Jayarathna, A.U. Rajapaksha, C.B. Dissanayake, M.S. Bootharaju, T. Pradeep, Modeling sorption of fluoride on to iron rich laterite, Colloids Surf., A, 398 (2012) 69–75.
  36. A. Maiti, B.K. Thakur, J.K. Basu, S. De, Comparison of treated laterite as arsenic adsorbent from different locations and performance of best filter under field conditions, J. Hazard. Mater., 262 (2013) 1176–1186.
  37. J. Osei, S.K.Y. Gawu, A.I. Schäfer, F.A. Atipoka, F.W.Y. Momade, Impact of laterite characteristics on fluoride removal from water, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 91 (2016) 911–920.
  38. U. Sreekumar, A.K. Thalla, V.V. Nair, Comparative evaluation of phosphate abatement using laterite soil and activated carbon, Int. J. Sci. Environ. Technol., 16 (2019) 4493–4502.
  39. A. Bhattacharjee, B.B. Jana, S.K. Mandal, S. Lahiri, J.N. Bhakta, Assessing phosphorus removal potential of laterite soil for water treatment and eco-technological application, Ecol. Eng., 166 (2021) 106245, doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106245.
  40. R. Patil Mansing, P.D. Raut, Removal of phosphorus from sewage effluent by adsorption on laterite, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. (IJERT), 2 (2013) 551–559.
  41. M. Sarkar, A. Banerjee, P.P. Pramanick, A.R. Sarkar, Use of laterite for the removal of fluoride from contaminated drinking water, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 302 (2006) 432–441.
  42. D.E. Kpannieu, M. Mallet, L. Coulibaly, M. Abdelmoula, C. Ruby, Phosphate removal from water by naturally occurring shale, sandstone, and laterite: the role of iron oxides and of soluble species, C.R. Geosci., 351 (2019) 37–47.
  43. C.B. Dissanayake, Mineralogy and chemical composition of some laterites of Sri Lanka, Geoderma, 23 (1980) 147–155.