1. R. Shpiner, S. Vathi, D.C. Stuckey, Treatment of produced water by waste stabilization ponds: removal of heavy metals, Water Res., 43(2009) 4258–4268.
  2. W.E. Allen, Process water treatment in Canada’s oil sands industry: II. A review of emerging technologies, J. Environ. Eng. Sci., 7 (2008) 499–524.
  3. H.I. Mustapha, J.J.A.V. Bruggen, P.N.L. Lens, Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for polishing secondary Kaduna refinery wastewater in Nigeria, Ecol. Eng., 84 (2015) 588–595.
  4. B.H. Diya’uddeen, W.M.A.W. Daud, A.R. Abdul Aziz, Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: a review, Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 89 (2011) 95–105.
  5. S.E. Agarry, A.O. Durojaiye, R.O. Yusuf, M.O. Aremu, B.O. Solomon, O. Majeed, Biodegradation of phenol in refinery wastewater by pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 950 and Pseudomonas fluorescence NCIB 3756, Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 32 (2008) 3–11.
  6. U.G. Akpan, E.A. Afolabi, K. Okemini, Modelling and simulation of the effect of effluent from Kaduna refinery and petrochemical company on River Kaduna, AU J. Technol., 12 (2008) 98–106.
  7. M.M. Spacil, J.H. Rodgers Jr., J.W. Castle, C.L.M. Gulde, J.E. Myers, Treatment of selenium in simulated refinery effluent using a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system, Water Air Soil Pollut., 221 (2011) 301–312.
  8. L. Marchand, M. Mench, D.L. Jacob, M.L. Otte, Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: a review, Environ. Pollut., 158 (2010) 3447–3461.
  9. C. Jadia, M. Fulekar, Phytoremediation of heavy metals: recent techniques, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8 (2009) 921–928.
  10. G. Imfeld, M. Braeckevelt, P. Kuschk, H.H. Richnow, Monitoring and assessing processes of organic chemicals removal in constructed wetlands, Chemosphere, 74 (2009) 349–362.
  11. D.A. Aljuboury, P. Palaniandy, H.B. Abdul Aziz, S. Feroz, Treatment of petroleum wastewater by conventional and new technologies – a review, Global NEST J., 19 (2017) 439–452.
  12. L. Alta, H. Bükgüyüngör, Sulfide removal in petroleum refinery wastewater by chemical precipitation, J. Hazard. Mater., 153 (2008) 462–469.
  13. H. Farajnezhad, P. Gharbani, Coagulation treatment of wastewater in petroleum industry using poly aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, Int. J. Res. Rev. Appl. Sci., 13 (2012) 306–310.
  14. Y. Zenga, C. Yang, J. Zhang, W. Pu, Feasibility investigation of oily wastewater treatment by combination of zinc and PAM in coagulation/flocculation, J. Hazard. Mater., 147 (2007) 991–996.
  15. J.V.F.L. Cavalcanti, C.A.M. Abreu, M.N. Carvalho, M.A.M. Sobrinho, M. Benachour, O.S. Barauna, Removal of effluent from petrochemical wastewater by adsorption using organo-clay, Dr Vivek Patel, ed., Petrochemicals, InTechOpen, 2012, pp. 277–294.
  16. M.H. Al-Malack, Performance of constant-flux immersed UF membrane treating petroleum refinery wastewater, Desal. Water Treat., 57 (2016) 8608–8618.
  17. L. Li, N. Liu, B. McPherson, R. Lee, Influence of counter ions on the reverse osmosis through MFI zeolite membranes: implications for produced water desalination, Desalination, 228 (2008) 217–225.
  18. X. Zhao, Y. Wang, Z. Ye, A.G.L. Borthwick, J. Ni, Oil field wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter by immobilized microorganisms, Process Biochem., 41 (2006) 1475–1483.
  19. K. Rajeshwar, J.G. Ibanez, Environmental Electrochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications in Pollution Abatement, Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA, 1997.
  20. A. Riyanto, A. Hidayatillah, Electrocoagulation of Detergent Wastewater Using Aluminium Wire Netting Electrode (AWNE), Proceeding of International Conference on Research, Implementation and Education of Mathematics and Science, 2014, pp. 151–158.
  21. A. Rehman, M. Kimb, A. Reverberic, B. Fabiano, Operational parameter influence on heavy metal removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation process, Chem. Eng. Trans., 43 (2015) 2251–2256.
  22. B. Lekhlif, L. Oudrhiri, F. Zidane, P. Drogui, J.F. Blais, Study of the electrocoagulation of electroplating industry wastewaters charged by nickel(II) and chromium(VI), J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 5 (2014) 111–120.
  23. H.G. Attia, Decolorization of direct blue dye by electrocoagulation process, J. Eng. Dev., 17 (2013) 171–181.
  24. A.I. Adeogun, R.B. Balakrishnan, Electrocoagulation removal of anthraquinone dye Alizarin red s from aqueous solution using aluminum electrodes: kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies, J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng., 6 (2016) 199–213.
  25. E. Bazrafshan, L. Mohammadi, A.A. Moghaddam, A.H. Mahvi, Heavy metals removal from aqueous environments by electrocoagulation process – a systematic review, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13 (2015) 1–16.
  26. O. Abdelwahab, N.K. Amin, E.-S.Z. El-Ashtoukhy, Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater, J. Hazard. Mater., 163 (2009) 711–716.
  27. M. Saeedi, A.K. Fahlyani, Treatment of oily wastewater of a gas refinery by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes, Water Environ. Res., 83 (2011) 255–264.
  28. M.H. El-Naas, S. Al-Zuhair, A. Al-Lobaney, Assessment of electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater, J. Environ. Manage., 91 (2009) 180–185.
  29. M.H. El-Naas, S. Al-Zuhair, A. Al-Lobaney, Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., 2 (2013) 2144–2150.
  30. S. Safari, M.A. Aghdam, H.R. Kariminia, Electrocoagulation for COD and diesel removal from oily wastewater, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 13 (2016) 231–242.
  31. D.S. Ibrahim, N. Sakthipriya, N. Balasubramanian, Electrocoagulation treatment of oily wastewater with sludge analysis, Water Sci. Technol., 66 (2012) 2533–2538.
  32. D.S. Ibrahim, M. Lathalakshmi, A. Muthukrishnaraj, N. Balasubramanian, An alternative treatment process for upgrade of petroleum refinery wastewater using electrocoagulation, Pet. Sci., 10 (2013) 421–430.
  33. D.S. Ibrahim, C. Veerabahu, R. Palani, S. Devi, N. Balasubramanian, Flow dynamics and mass transfer studies in a tubular electrochemical reactor with a mesh electrode, Comput. Fluids, 73 (2013) 97–103.
  34. S.T. Kadhum, G.Y. Alkindi, T.M. Albayati, Remediation of phenolic wastewater implementing nano zerovalent iron as a granular third electrode in an electrochemical reactor, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 19 (2022) 1383–1392.
  35. Sudibyo, L. Hermida, Suwardi, Application of Taguchi optimization on the cassava starch wastewater electrocoagulation using batch recycle method, AIP Conf. Proc., 1904 (2017) 020006-1–020006-8, doi: 10.1063/1.5011863.
  36. T. Tyborski, Alkaline Cleaner for Cleaning Aluminum Surfaces, U.S. Patent No. 9,222,176, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, D.C., 2015.
  37. S.S. Alkurdi, A.H. Abbar, Removal of COD from petroleum refinery wastewater by electro-coagulation process using SS/Al electrodes, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 870 (2020) 012052,
    doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012052.
  38. M. Evans, Optimization of Manufacturing Processes: A Response Surface Approach, Carlton House Terrace, London, 2003.
  39. E. Ahmadi, B. Shokri, A. Mesdaghinia, R. Nabizadeh, M. Reza Khani, S. Yousefzadeh, M. Salehi, K. Yaghmaeian, Synergistic effects of α-FeO3-TiO2 and Na2S2O8 on the performance of a nonthermal plasma reactor as a novel catalytic oxidation process for dimethyl phthalate degradation, Sep. Purif. Technol., 250 (2020) 117185, doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117185.
  40. J. Segurola, N.S. Allen, M. Edge, A.M. Mahon, Design of eutectic photoinitiator blends for UV/visible curable acrylated printing inks and coatings, Prog. Org. Coat., 37 (1999) 23–37.
  41. N. Adhoum, L. Monser, Decolourization and removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation, Chem. Eng. Process, 43 (2004) 1281–1287.
  42. T. Kim, C. Park, J. Lee, E. Shin, S. Kim, Pilot scale treatment of textile wastewater by combined process (fluidized biofilm process–chemical coagulation–electrochemical oxidation), Water Res., 36 (2002) 3979–3988.
  43. K. Bensadok, S. Benammar, F. Lapicque, G. Nezzal, Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes, J. Hazard. Mater., 152 (2008) 423–430.
  44. A.E. Yilmaz, R. Boncukcuoglu, M.M. Kocakerim, A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution, J. Hazard. Mater., 149 (2007) 475–481.
  45. U. Ayyappan, M.S. Indu, A.G. Murickan, J. Balagopal, A.S Kumar, K.L. Priya, Continuous Flow Electrocoagulation System for the Treatment of Coir Industry Wastewater, Proceedings of International Web Conference in Civil Engineering for a Sustainable Planet (ICCESP 2021), 2021, doi: 10.21467/proceedings.112.
  46. A. Srivastava, K. Srivastava, P. Singh, Application of continuous electrocoagulation process for distillery wastewater treatment, J. Sci. Ind. Res., 80 (2021) 486–490.
  47. U. Tezcan, A.S. Koparal, U.B. Ogutveren, Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes, J. Environ. Manage., 90 (2009) 428–433.
  48. H. Liu, X. Zhao, J. Qu, Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment, C. Comninellis, G. Chen, Eds., Electrochemistry for the Environ., Spring. Sci.+Bus. Med., LLC, 2010, pp. 245–262.
  49. I.A. Alaton, I. Kabdasl, D. Hanbaba, E. Kuybu, Electrocoagulation of a real reactive dye bath effluent using aluminum and stainless steel electrodes, J. Hazard. Mater., 150 (2008) 166–173.
  50. B. Merzouk, B. Gourich, A. Sekki, K. Madani, C. Vial, M. Barkaoui, Studies on the ecolorization of textile dye wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process, J. Chem. Eng., 149 (2009) 207–214.
  51. A.R. Makwana, M.M. Ahammed, Continuous electrocoagulation process for the post-treatment of anaerobically treated municipal wastewater, Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 102 (2016) 724–733.
  52. T.L. Benazzi, M.D. Luccio, R.M. Dallago, J. Steffens, R. Mores, M.S.D. Nascimento, J. Krebs, G. Ceni, Continuous flow electrocoagulation in the treatment of wastewater from dairy industries, Water Sci. Technol., 73 (2016) 1418–1425.
  53. M. Kobya, E. Gengec, E. Demirbas, Operating parameters and costs assessments of a real dye house wastewater effluent treated by a continuous electrocoagulation process, Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif., 101 (2016) 87–100.
  54. O.T. Can, M. Kobya, E. Demirbas, M. Bayramoglu, Treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation, Chemosphere, 62 (2006) 181–187.
  55. F. Deniz, C. Akarsu, Operating cost and treatment of boron from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation in low concentration, Global Challenges, 2 (2018) 1800011, doi: 10.1002/gch2.201800011.
  56. Iraq Electricity Prices. Available at: www.GlobalPetrolPrices. com, electricity_prices
  57. Ingot Aluminum Iraq. Available at aluminium-iraq
  58. S.O. Giwa, A. Giwa, Z. Zeybek, H. Hapoglu, Electrocoagulation treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater: optimization through RSM, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., 2 (2013) 606–615.
  59. F. Ozyonar, B. Karagozoglu, Operating cost analysis and treatment of domestic wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes, Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 20 (2011) 173–179.