1. (Accessed 05.09.2022).
  2. (Accessed 05.09.2022).
  3. M.A. Shereen, S. Khan, A. Kazmi, N. Bashir, R. Siddique, COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses, J. Adv. Res., 24 (2020) 91–98.
  4. T. Rogier, I. Eberl, F. Moretto, T. Sixt, F.-X. Catherine, C. Estève, M. Abdallahoui, L. Behague, A. Coussement, L. Mathey, S. Mahy, M. Buisson, A. Salmon-Rousseau, M. Duong, P. Chavanet, Q. Bernard, B. Nicolas, L. Benguella, B. Bonnotte, M. Blot, L. Piroth, COVID-19 or not COVID-19? Compared characteristics of patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 40 (2021) 2023–2028.
  5. F.J. Arias, S. De Las Heras, The mechanical effect of moisturization on airborne COVID-19 transmission and its potential use as control technique, Environ. Res., 197 (2021) 110940, doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110940.
  6. P.E. Napoli, M. Nioi, E. D’aloja, M. Fossarello, The ocular surface and the coronavirus disease 2019: does a dual ‘ocular route’ exist?, J. Clin. Med., 9 (2020) 1269, doi: 10.3390/jcm9051269.
  7. B. Sivakumar, COVID-19 and water, Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess., 35 (2021) 531–534.
  8. L. Morawska, J.W. Tang, W. Bahnfleth, P.M. Bluyssen, A. Boerstra, G. Buonanno, J. Cao, S. Dancer, A. Floto, F. Franchimon, C. Haworth, J. Hogeling, C. Isaxon, J.L. Jimenez, J. Kurnitski, Y. Li, M. Loomans, G. Marks, L.C. Marr, L. Mazzarella, A.K. Melikov, S. Miller, D.K. Milton, W. Nazaroff, P.V. Nielsen, C. Noakes, J. Peccia, X. Querol, C. Sekhar, O. Seppänen, S.-I. Tanabe, R. Tellier, K.W. Tham, P. Wargocki, A. Wierzbicka, M. Yao, How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?, Environ. Int., 142 (2020) 105832, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105832.
  9., (Accessed 05.09.2022).
  10., (Accessed 05.09.2022).
  11. Act of 5 December 2008 on the Prevention and Control of Infections and Infectious Diseases in Humans (Journal of Laws 2008 No. 234 Item 1570) (in Polish).
  12. D.M. Hannah, I. Lynch, F. Mao, J.D. Miller, S.L. Young, S. Krause, Water and sanitation for all in a pandemic, Nat. Sustain., 3 (2020) 773–775.
  13. Guidelines for the Operation of Swimming Pools and Saunas During the SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic in Poland, Ministry of Development and Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. Available at, (Accessed 05.06.2020) (in Polish).
  14. Opinion of the National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene on the Use of Swimming Pools During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Warsaw, Poland, 04.05.2020 (in Polish).
  15. Declaration of the Minister of Health of 10 May 2022 on the Publication of the Consolidated Text of the Regulation of the Minister of Health on the Requirements to be Met by Water at Swimming Pools, Journal of Laws 2022 Item 1230 (in Polish).
  16. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, A. Lempart, M. Marciniak, Research and evaluation of water quality in outdoor swimming pools, E3S Web Conf., 100 (2019) 8, doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/201910000089.
  17. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, Multi-aspect Analysis of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Swimming Pool Waters, Silesian University of Technology Publishing, Gliwice, Poland, 2020 (in Polish).
  18. S. Golbaz, R. Nabizadeh, S. Zarinkolah, A.H. Mahvi, M. Alimohammadi, M. Yousefi, An innovative swimming pool water quality index (SPWQI) to monitor and evaluate the pools: design and compilation of computational model, Environ. Monit. Assess., 191 (2019) 448, doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7577-y.
  19. J.-L. Boudenne, J. Parinet, C. Demelas, T. Manasfi, B. Coulomb, Monitoring and factors affecting levels of airborne and water bromoform in chlorinated seawater swimming pools, J. Environ. Sci., 58 (2017) 262–270.
  20. Sports Act of 25 June 2010 (Journal of Laws 2010 No. 127, Item 857) (in Polish).
  21. Decree of the Health Minister on the Requirements for Water in Swimming Pools, Journal of Laws 2015, Item 2016 (in Polish).
  22. Guidelines on Water Quality and Sanitary and Hygienic Conditions at Swimming Pools, Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, Department of Water Health Safety, Warsaw, 2014 (in Polish).
  23. J. Wyczarska-kokot, A. Lempart-Rapacewicz, M. Dudziak, E. Łaskawiec, Impact of swimming pool water treatment system factors on the content of selected disinfection by-products, Environ. Monit. Assess., 192 (2020) 722, doi: 10.1007/s10661-020-08683-7.
  24. I. Delpla, S. Simard, F. Proulx, J.B. Sérodes, I. Valois, E. Ahmadpour, M. Debia, R. Tardif, S. Haddad, M. Rodriguez, Cumulative impact of swimmers on pool water quality: a full-scale study revealing seasonal and daily variabilities of disinfection by-products, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 9 (2021) 106809, doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2021.106809.
  25. R.A.A. Carter, S. Allard, J.-P. Croué, C.A. Joll, 500 days of swimmers: the chemical water quality of swimming pool waters from the beginning, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 26 (2019) 29110–29126.
  26. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, M. Dudziak, A. Lempart, Effects of modernization of the water treatment system in a selected swimming pool, Environ. Prot. Eng., 45 (2019) 31–43.
  27. Regulation of the Council of Ministers of May 6, 2021 On the Establishment of Certain Restrictions, Orders and Prohibitions in Connection with the Outbreak, Journal of Laws 2021 Pos. 861 (in Polish).
  28. (Accessed 05.06.2020).
  29. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, A. Lempart, M. Dudziak, Chlorine contamination in different points of pool - risk analysis for bathers’ health, Ecol. Chem. Eng. A, 24 (2017) 217–226.
  30. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, A. Lempart-Rapacewicz, M. Dudziak, Analysis of free and combined chlorine concentrations in swimming pool water and an attempt to determine a reliable water sampling point, Water, 12 (2020) 311, doi: 10.3390/w12020311.
  31. F. Yang, Z. Yang, H. Li, F. Jia, Y. Yang, Occurrence and factors affecting the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes in outdoor swimming pools treated with trichloroisocyanuric acid, Environ. Sci. Water Res. Technol., 4 (2018) 218–225.
  32. H. Ilyas, I. Masih, J.P. van der Hoek, An exploration of disinfection by-products formation and governing factors in chlorinated swimming pool water, J. Water Health, 16 (2018) 861–892.
  33. R.A.A. Carter, C.A. Joll, Occurrence and formation of disinfection by-products in the swimming pool environment: a critical review, J. Environ. Sci., 58 (2017) 19–50.
  34. M.G.A. Keuten, F.M. Schets, J.F. Schijven, J.Q.J.C. Verberk, J.C. van Dijk, Definition and quantification of initial anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools, Water Res., 46 (2012) 3682–3692.
  35. H.L. Tang, R.J. Ristau, Y.F. Xie, S. Simard, R. Tardif, M.J. Rodriguez, C. Catto, G. Charest-Tardif, S. Simard, Variability of chlorination by-product occurrence in water of indoor and outdoor swimming pools, Water Res., 47 (2013) 1763–1772.
  36. K.M.S. Hansen, S. Willach, M.G. Antoniou, H. Mosbæk, H.-J. Albrechtsen, H.R. Andersen, Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – is less THM better?, Water Res., 46 (2012) 6399–6409.
  37. DIN 19643, Water Treatment for Swimming and Bathing Pools, Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, 2012 (in German).
  38. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, F. Piechurski, Application of pre-ozonation process in swimming pool water treatment technology, Desal. Water Treat., 186 (2020) 382–393.
  39. W.A. Cheema, H.R. Andersen, K.M.S. Kaarsholm, Improved DBP elimination from swimming pool water by continuous combined UV and ozone treatment, Water Res., 147 (2018) 214–222.
  40. B. Skibinski, S. Uhlig, P. Müller, I. Slavik, W. Uhl, Impact of different combinations of water treatment processes on the concentration of disinfection byproducts and their precursors in swimming pool water, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53 (2019) 8115–8126.
  41. W.L. Bradford, What bathers put into a pool: a critical review of body fluids and a body fluid analog, Int. J. Aquat. Res. Educ., 8 (2014) 168–181.
  42. M.L. Christensen, M.M. Klausen, P.V. Christensen, Test of precoat filtration technology for treatment of swimming pool water, Water Sci. Technol., 77 (2018) 748–758.
  43. O. Omisakin, I. Young, Compliance of bathers to showering before swimming in a public pool in Toronto, Ontario, Environ. Health Rev., 63 (2021) 107–113.
  44. E.R. Blatchley, M. Cheng, Reaction mechanism for chlorination of urea, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (2010) 8529–8534.
  45. J. De Laat, W. Feng, D.A. Freyfer, F. Dossier-Berne, Concentration levels of urea in swimming pool water and reactivity of chlorine with urea, Water Res., 45 (2011) 1139–1146.
  46. S. Judd, G. Bullock, The fate of chlorine and organic materials in swimming pools, Chemosphere, 51 (2003) 869–879.
  47. F. Gallè, L. Dallolio, M. Marotta, A. Raggi, V. Di Onofrio, G. Liguori, F. Toni, E. Leoni, Health-related behaviors in swimming pool users: influence of knowledge of regulations and awareness of health risks, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13 (2016) 513, doi: 10.3390/ijerph13050513.
  48. M. Zarzoso, S. Llana, Potential negative effects of chlorinated swimming pool attendance on heath of swimmers and associated staff, Biol. Sport., 27 (2010) 233–240.
  49. M. Couto, A. Bernard, L. Delgado, F. Drobnic, M. Kurowski, A. Moreira, R. Rodrigues-Alves, M. Rukhadze, S. Seys, M. Wiszniewska, S. Quirce, Health effects of exposure to chlorination by-products in swimming pools, Allergy Eur. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 76 (2021) 3257–3275.
  50. Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments, Volume 2: Swimming Pools and Similar, WHO, Geneva, 2006.
  51. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, Comparision of chloramine concentration in swimming pool water depending on swimming pool intendend use., Ecol. Chem. Eng. A, 22 (2015) 27–37.
  52. J. Wyczarska-Kokot, Impact of disinfection method on chloramine content in swimming pool water, Ochr. Srodow., 36 (2014) 37–42.
  53. B. Skibinski, G. Christoph, E. Worch, W. Uhl, Pore diffusion limits removal of monochloramine in treatment of swimming pool water using granular activated carbon, Water Res., 132 (2018) 270–281.
  54. A. Włodyka-Bergier, T. Bergier, D. Gajewska, S. Emilia, Wpływ H2O2/UV na zawartość chloramin w wodzie basenowej, Przem. Chem., 9 (2018) 1530–1532.
  55. S. Chowdhury, K. Alhooshani, T. Karanfil, Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs, Water Res., 53 (2014) 68–109.
  56. J. Westerlund, I.L. Bryngelsson, H. Löfstedt, K. Eriksson, H. Westberg, P. Graff, Occupational exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes: adverse health effects among personnel in habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pools, J. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 16 (2019) 78–88.
  57. P. Lara, V. Ramírez, F. Castrillón, G.A. Peñuela, Presence of disinfection byproducts in public swimming pools in medellín, Colombia, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17 (2020) 4659, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134659.
  58. M. Bożym, I. Kłosok-Bazan, M. Wzorek, Analyzing THM concentrations in selected indoor swimming pool waters in the Opole Region, Polish J. Environ. Stud., 27 (2018) 1001–1008.
  59. E. Kudlek, A. Lempart-Rapacewicz, M. Dudziak, Identification of potential harmful transformation products of selected micropollutants in outdoor and indoor swimming pool water, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19 (2022) 5660, doi: 10.3390/ijerph19095660.
  60. A. Lempart, E. Kudlek, M. Dudziak, The potential of the organic micropollutants emission from swimming accessories into pool water, Environ. Int., 136 (2020) 105442, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105442.
  61. A. Lempart, E. Kudlek, M. Dudziak, Concentration levels of selected pharmaceuticals in swimming pool water, Desal. Water Treat., 117 (2018) 353–361.
  62. X. Wei, J. Li, S. Hou, C. Xu, H. Zhang, E. Atwill, X. Li, Z. Yang, S. Chen, Assessment of microbiological safety of water in public swimming pools in Guangzhou, China, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15 (2018) 1416, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071416.
  63. O. Samuel, G. Joy, O. Frederick, O.N. Chinelo, Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of outdoor public swimming pools in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, Central Afr. J. Public Health, 3 (2017) 55–60.
  64. N.M. Aboulfotoh Hashish, A.A. Gawad Abbass, A.E. Khamis Amine, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and spas, Cogent Environ. Sci., 3 (2017).
  65. C. Payus, I. Geoffrey, K. Amrie, A. Oliver, Coliform bacteria contamination in chlorine-treated swimming pool sports complex, Asian J. Sci. Res., 11 (2018) 560–567.
  66. E. Leoni, F. Catalani, S. Marini, L. Dallolio, Legionellosis associated with recreational waters: a systematic review of cases and outbreaks in swimming pools, spa pools, and similar environments, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15 (2018) 1612, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081612.