1. M.F.A. Goosen, S.S. Sablani, H. Al-Hinai, S. Al-Obeidani, R. Al- Belushi and D. Jackson, Fouling of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration membrane: a critical review, Sep. Sci. Technol., 29 (2004) 2262–2298.
  2. Q. Li and M. Elimelech, Synergistic effect in combined fouling of a losse nanofiltration membrane by colloidal materials and natural organic matter, J. Membr. Sci., 278 (2006) 72–82.
  3. L.Y. Dudely and E.G. Darton, Pretreatment procedures to control boigrowth and scale formation in membrane systems, Desalination, 118 (1997) 11–20.
  4. N.M. Al-Bastaki and H.L. Al-Qahtani, Assessment of thermal effects on the reverse osmosis of salt/water solution by using a spiral woumd polyamide membrane, Desalination, 99 (1994) 159– 168.
  5. H. Huiting, J.W.N.M. Kappelhof and T.G.J. Bosklopper, Operation of NF/RO plants: from reactive to proactive, Desalination, 139 (2001) 183–189.
  6. F.H. Butt, F. Rahman and U. Baduruthamal, Characterization of foulants by autopsy of RO desalination membranes, Desalination, 114 (1997) 51–64.
  7. F.H. Butt, F. Rahman and U. Baduruthamal, Identification of scale deposits through membrane autopsy, Desalination, 101 (1995) 219–230.
  8. T. Darton, U. Annunziata and F. del Vigo Pisano, Membrane autopsy helps to provide solution to operational problems, Desalination, 167 (2004) 239–245.
  9. L.Y. Dudely and E.G. Darton, Membrane autopsy — a case study, Desalination, 105 (1996) 135–141.
  10. S. Gallego Lopez, F. del Vigo Piasno and J. Shango Munoz, Membrane autopsies: helps to provide solutions to operational problems in reverse osmosis plants, Water Sci. Technol., 5 (2005) 129–135.
  11. A. Mohamed, F. Mohamed, A. Al-Amoudi, A.T.M. Jamaluddin and A.M. Hassan, Performance restoration, autopsy and analysis of five different commercial SWRO membranes, IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, Spain, 1997.
  12. K.J. Howe, K.P. Ishida and M.M. Clark, Use of ATR/FTIR spectrometry to study fouling of microfiltration membranes by natural waters, Desalination, 147 (2002) 251–255.
  13. C.Y. Tang, Y.N. Kown and J.O. Leckie, Probing the nano-scales of reverse osmosis membranes—A comprehensive characterization of physicochemical properties of uncoated and coated membranes by XPS, TEM, ATR-FTIR, and streaming potential measurements, J. Membr. Sci., 287 (2007) 146–156.
  14. A.N. Hilal, W. Mohammad, B. Atkin and N.A. Darwish, Using atomic force microscopy towards improvement in nanfiltration membranes properties for desalination pre-treatment: a review, Desalination, 157 (2003) 137–144.
  15. V. Freger, H. Gilron and S. Blefer, TFC polyamide membranes modified by grafting of hydrophilic polymers: an FT-IR/AFM/ TEM study, J. Membr. Sci., 209 (2002) 283–292.
  16. R.T. Bachmann and R.G.J. Edyvean, AFM study of the colonization of stainless steel by Aquabacterium commune, Inter. Biodeter. Biodegrad., 58 (2006) 112–118.
  17. A.A. Abufayed, Performance characteristics of cyclically operated seawater desalination plant in Tajoura, Libya, Desalination, 139 (2001) 131–132.
  18. I. El-Azizi and A. Omran, Design criteria of 10,000 m3/d SWRO desalination plant of The Tajoura, Libya, Desalination, 153 (2003) 273–279.
  19. Z. Yu and J.S. Taylor, Assessment of ASTM D 4516 for evaluation of reverse osmosis membrane performance, Desalination, 180 (2005) 231–244.
  20. R.P. Schneider, L.M. Ferreira, P. Binder and J.R. Ramos, Analysis of foulant layer in all elements of an RO trains, J. Membr. Sci., 261 (2005) 152–162.
  21. E.M. Vrijenhoek, S. Hong and M. Elimelech, Influence of membrane surface properties of initial rate of colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 188 (2001) 115–128.
  22. M. Safar, M. Jafar, M. Abdel-Jawad and S. Bou-Hamad, Standardization of RO membrane performance, Desalination, 118 (1998) 13–21.
  23. M.A. Saad, Early discovery of RO membrane fouling and realtime monitoring of plant performance for optimizing cost of water, Desalination, 165 (2004) 183–191.
  24. M. Elimelech, X. Zhu, A.E. Childress and S. Hong, Role of membrane surface morphology in colloidal fouling of cellulose acetate and composite aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 209 (2002) 283–292.
  25. E.M.V. Hoek and M. Elimelech, Cake-enhanced concentration polarization: A new fouling mechanism for salt-rejection membranes, Environ. Eng. Soc., 37 (2003) 5581–5588.
  26. Ch. Tzotzi, T. Pahiadaki, S.G. Yiantsios, A.J. Karabelas and N. Andritsos, A study of CaCO3 scale formation and inhibition in RO and NF membrane processes, J. Membr. Sci., 296 (2007) 171–184.
  27. T. Chen, A. Neville and M. Yuan, Assessing the effect of Mg++ on CaCO3 scale formation-bulk precipitation and surface deposition, J. Membr. Sci., 175 (2005) 1341–1347.
  28. H.L. Yang, C. Huang and J.R. Pan, Characteristic of RO foulants in a brackish water desalination plant, Desalination, 220 (2008) 353–358.
  29. J. Schmitt and H.-C. Flemming, FTIR-spectroscopy in microbial and material analysis, Intern. Biodeter. Biodegrad., 41 (1998) 1–11.
  30. J. Cho, G. Amy, J. Pellegrino and Y. Yoon, Characterization of clean and natural organic matter (NOM) fouled NF and UF membranes, and foulants characterization, Desalination, 118 (1998) 101–108.
  31. P. Xu, J.E. Drewes, T.-U. Kim, C. Bellona and G. Amy, Effect of membrane fouling on transport of organic contaminants in NF/RO membrane applications, J. Membr. Sci., 279 (2006) 165–175.
  32. G. Falini, M. Gazzano and A. Ripamonti, Crystallization of calcium carbonate in presence of magnesium and polyelectrolytes, J. Crystal Growth, 137 (1994) 577–584.