1. K. Yoshizuka, A. Kitajou, M. Holba, Selective recovery of lithium from seawater using a novel MnO2 type adsorbent. III – Benchmark Evaluation, Ars Sep. Acta, 4 (2006) 78–85.
  2. A. Somrani, A.H. Hamzaoui, M. Pontie, Study on lithium separation from salt lake brines by nanofiltration (NF) and low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO), Desalination, 317 (2013) 184–192.
  3. A. Kitajou,. T. Suzuki, S. Nishihama, K. Yoshizuka, Selective recovery of lithium from seawater using a novel MnO2 type adsorbent. II- Enhancement of lithium ion selectivity of the adsorbent, Ars Sep. Acta, 2 (2003) 97–106.
  4. H. Hamzaoui, A. M’nif, H. Hammi, R. Rokbani, Contribution to the lithium recovery from brine, Desalination, 158 (2003) 221–224.
  5. T. Hoshino, Development of technology for recovering lithium from seawater by electrodialysis using ionic liquid membrane, Fusion Eng. Des., 88 (2013) 2956–2959.
  6. M. M. H. El-Sayed, H.A. Hani, M.H. Sorour, Polymeric ion exchangers for the recovery of ions from brine and seawater, Chem. Eng. Process Technol., 2 (2014) 1020.
  7. Y. Pranolo, W. Zhang, C.Y. Cheng, Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion battery leach solutions with a mixed solvent extractant system, Hydrometallurgy, 102 (2010) 37–42.
  8. X. Wen, P. Ma, C. Zhu, Q. He, X. Deng, Preliminary study on recovering lithium chloride from lithium-containing waters by nanofiltration, Sep. Purif. Technol., 49 (2006) 230–236.
  9. Y. Gang, H. Shi, W. Liu, W. Xing, N. Xu, investigation of Mg2+/Li+ separation by nanofiltration, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 19 (2011) 586–559.
  10. J.M. Lee, W.C Bauman, Recovery of Mg++ from brines. US patent 4183900; 1980.
  11. H. Ohya, T. Suzuki, S. Nakao, Integrated system for complete usage of components in seawater: a proposal of inorganic chemical combination on seawater, Desalination, 134 (2001) 29–36.
  12. K. Yoshizuka, M. Holba, T. Yasunaga, Y. Ikegami, Performance evaluation of benchmark plant for selective lithium recovery from Seawater, J. Ion Exchange, 18 (2007) 450–453.
  13. K. Yoshizuka, K. Fukui, K. Inoue, Selective recovery of lithium from seawater using a novel MnO2 type adsorbent, Ars Sep. Acta, 1 (2002) 79–86.
  14. Q.H. Zhang, S.P. Li, S.Y. Sun, X.S. Yin, J.G. Yu, Lithium selective adsorption on low-dimensional titaniananoribbons, Chem. Eng. Sci., 65 (2010) 165–168.
  15. Q.H. Zhang, S.P. Li, S.Y. Sun, X.S. Yin, J. G. Yu, LiMn2O4 spinel direct synthesis and lithium ion selective adsorption, Chem. Eng. Sci., 65 (2010) 169–173.
  16. Q.H. Zhang, S. Sun, S. Li, H. Jiang, J. G. Yu, Adsorption of lithium ions on novel nanocrystal MnO2, Chem. Eng. Sci., 62 (2007) 4869–4874.
  17. Q.H. Zhang, S.P. Li, S.Y. Sun, X.S. Yin, J.G. Yu, Lithium selective adsorption on 1-D MnO2 nanostructure ion-sieve, Adv. Powder Technol., 20 (2009) 432–437.
  18. L. Tian, W. Ma, M. Han, Adsorption behavior of Li+ onto nano-lithium ion sieve from hybrid magnesium/lithium manganese oxide, Chem. Eng. J., 156 (2010) 134–140.
  19. L. Chang, Y.L. Jiang, J.Y. Shiu, J.R. Lin, Processes for producing lithium concentrate from brine or seawater, US patent 2004/0074774 A1.
  20. J.Y. Shiu, J.R. Lin, D.Ch. Lee, Y.M. Chen, Ch.Ch. Liu, Method for adsorbing lithium ions from a lithium-containing aqueous solution by a granular adsorbent, US 2003/ 0231996 A1.
  21. L. Irving, The precipitation of calcium and magnesium from seawater, J. Mar. Boil. Assoc., 14 (1926) 441–446.
  22. R.R. Dupont, T.N. Eixenberg, E.J. Middlebrooks, RO in the Treatment of Drinking Water, Report, paper 505. 1982. Available online at: http:/ 505
  23. M. El-Nashar, History and Current Status of Membrane Desalination Processes, Encyclopedia of Desalination and Water Resources (DESWARE), UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Support System [EOLSS], Oxford, UK. UNESCO, 2009.
  24. R. Mills, Brine Mining the Puna for Potash and Lithium, 2011. Available online at:
  25. M.H. Sorour, H.A. Hani, H.F. Shaalan, Gh. A. Al-Bazedi, Preliminary techno-economics assessment of developed desalination/ salt recovery facility based on membrane and thermal techniques, Desal. Wat. Treat., 55 (2015) 2416–2422.
  26. M.H. Sorour, H.A. Hani, H.F. Shaalan, Gh. A. Al-Bazedi, Schemes for salt recovery from seawater and RO brines using chemical precipitation, Desal. Wat. Treat., 55 (2015) 2398–2407.
  27. T. Trusu, S. Nakao, S. Kimura, Calculation of ion rejection by extended Nernst-Plank equation with charged reverse osmosis membranes for single and mixed electrolyte solutions, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., 24 (1991) 511–517.
  28. D.E. Galli, Demetrio Humana, Rene Enrique Santillan, Patent Application Title: Process for Recovering Lithium from a brine, Patent application number: 20110300041 (2011).
  29. M.R. Kumar, K. Saravanan, Application of reverse osmosis membrane system for treatment of effluent in textile knitted fabric dyeing, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10 (2011) 15756–15762.
  30. K.P. Lee, T.C. Arnot, D. Mattia, A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination-development to date and future potential, J. Membr. Sci., 370 (2011) 1–22.
  31. C. Watson Jr, O.J. Morin, L. Henthorne, Desalting Handbook for Planners, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center (USBR), Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 72, 2003.
  32. A. Al-Karaghouli,. L.L. Kazmerski, Energy consumption and water production cost of conventional and renewable-energypowered desalination processes, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 24 (2013) 343–356.
  33. H. Harraz, Evaporative salt Deposits, Fourth Year of Geology Conference Tanta University, 2012–2013.
  34. D.E. Garrett, Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride – their deposits, processing, uses and properties, Elsevier, 2004.
  35. P. Baert, T. Bosteels, P. Sorgeloos, Chapter 4.5 Pond Prediction 196-251, Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture, Eds. P. Lavens, P. Sorgeloos, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 361. Rome, FAO. 1996, p. 295.
  36. P. Dama-Fakir, A Toerien, Evaporation Rates on Brine Produced during Membrane Treatment of Mine Water, Abstracts of the International Mine Water Conference 19th – 23rd October 2009 Proceedings, Produced by: Document Transformation Technologies cc, Pretoria, South Africa,Conference organized by: Cilla Taylor Conferences, ISBN Number: 978-0-9802623-5-3.
  37. M. Coleman, Review and discussion on the evaporation rate of brines, actis, Environmental Services, 1–12 (2000).
  38. H.A. Hani, M.M. H. El-Sayed, A.A. Mostafa, N.M. El-Defrawy, M.H. Sorour, Removal of Cr (III) in batch and pilot scale dynamic systems using Zeolite NaA prepared from Egyptian Kaolin, Int. Chem. Environ. Eng. J., 3 (2012) 158–166.
  39. L. Wang, C.G. Meng, W. Ma, Study on Li+ uptake by lithium ionsieve via the pH technique, Colloids Surf. A, 334 (2009) 34–39.
  40. J. Lemaire, L. Svecova, F. Lagallarde, R. Laucournet, P.X. Thivel, Lithium recovery from aqueous solution by sorption/ desorption, Hydrometallurgy, 143 (2014) 1–11.
  41. H.J. Hong, I.S. Park, T. Ryu, J. Ryu, B.G. Kim, K.S. Chung, Granulation of Li1.33Mn1.67O4 (LMO) through the use of crosslinked chitosan for the effective recovery of Li+ from seawater, Chem. Eng. J., 234 (2013) 16–22.
  42. M.H. Sorour, A.M. EL-Rafei, H.A. Hani, Synthesis and characterization of electrospun aluminium doped Li1.6Mn1.6O4 Spinel, Ceramics Int., 42 (2016) 4911–4917.
  43. F.M.J. Deberitz, D.K. Kobele, W.N. K. Schade, Method for separating NaCl from LiCl solution, US Patent 6063345, 2000.
  44. G. Zhu, P. Wang, P. Qi, C. Gao, Adsorption and desorption properties of Li+ on PVC-H1.6Mn1.6O4 lithium ion-sieve membrane, Chem. Eng. J., 235 (2014) 340–348.
  45. M.J. Park, G.M. Nisola, A.B. Beltran, R.E.C. Torrejos, J.G. Seo, S.P. Lee, H. Kim, W.J. Chung, Recyclable composite nanofiber adsorbent for Li+ recovery from seawater desalination retentate, Chem. Eng. J., 8 (2014) 73–81.
  46. M.M.H. El-Sayed, H.A. Chase, Single and two-component cation- exchange adsorption of the two pure major whey proteins, J Chromatogr. A, 1216 (2009) 8705–8711.
  47. R. Trocoli, A. Battistel, F.L. Mantia, Selectivity of a lithium-recovery process based on LiFePO4, Chem. Eur. J. 20 (2014) 9888–9891.
  48. G.A. Bazedi, R.S. Ettouney, S.R. Tewfik, M.H. Sorour, M.A. El-Rifai, Salt recovery from brine generated by large-scale seawater desalination plants, Desal. Wat. Treat., 52 (2014) 4689–4697.