1. A.M.F. Orozco, E.M. Contreras, N.E. Zaritzky, Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system, J. Hazard. Mater., 150 (2008) 46–52.
  2. Y. González Bermúdez, I.L. Rodríguez Rico, E. Guibal, M. Calero de Hoces, M.Á. Martín-Lara, Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by Sargassum muticum brown alga. Application of statistical design for process optimization, Chem. Eng. J., 183 (2012) 68–76.
  3. L. Yang, J.P. Chen, Biosorption of hexavalent chromium onto raw and chemically modified Sargassum sp., Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008) 297–307.
  4. B. Dhal, H.N. Thatoi, N.N. Das, B.D. Pandey, Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review, J. Hazard. Mater., 250–251 (2013) 272–291.
  5. L. Khezami, R. Capart, Removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution by activated carbons: kinetic and equilibrium studies, J. Hazard. Mater., 123 (2005) 223–231.
  6. K. Mohanty, M. Jha, B.C. Meikap, M.N. Biswas, Removal of chromium (VI) from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon developed from Terminalia arjuna nuts activated with zinc chloride, Chem. Eng. Sci., 60 (2005) 3049–3059.
  7. WHO, Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd ed., Available online at: 2016
  8. A. Prabhu, Evaluation of process parameters for biosorption of chromium (VI) using full factorial design and response surface methodology, Environ. Sci., 9 (2014) 263–273.
  9. M. López-García, P. Lodeiro, R. Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente, Cr(VI) removal from synthetic and real wastewaters: The use of the invasive biomass Sargassum muticum in batch and column experiments, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 18 (2012) 1370–1376.
  10. M.G.A. Vieira, R.M. Oisiovici, M.L. Gimenes, M.G.C. Silva, Biosorption of chromium(VI) using a Sargassum sp. packed-bed column, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008) 3094–3099.
  11. D.G.S.S. Ahluwalia, Removal of heavy metals by waste tea leaves from aqueous solution, Eng. Life Sci., 5 (2005) 158–162.
  12. S. Rangabhashiyam, E. Suganya, N. Selvaraju, Packed bed column investigation on hexavalent chromium adsorption using activated carbon prepared from Swietenia Mahogani fruit shells, Desal. Wat. Treat., 57 (2016) 13048–13055.
  13. S. Rangabhashiyam, N. Selvaraju, Evaluation of the biosorption potential of a novel Caryota urens inflorescence waste biomass for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 47 (2015) 59–70.
  14. S. Rangabhashiyam, N. Selvaraju, Adsorptive remediation of hexavalent chromium from synthetic wastewater by a natural and ZnCl2 activated Sterculia guttata shell, J. Mol. Liq., 207 (2015) 39–49.
  15. S. Rangabhashiyam, E. Suganya, N. Selvaraju, L.A. Varghese, Significance of exploiting non-living biomaterials for the biosorption of wastewater pollutants, World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 30 (2014) 1669–1689.
  16. D. Kratochvil, P. Pimentel, B. Volesky, Removal of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by seaweed biosorbent, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32 (1998) 2693–2698.
  17. R. Elangovan, L. Philip, K. Chandraraj, Biosorption of chromium species by aquatic weeds: kinetics and mechanism studies, J. Hazard. Mater., 152 (2008) 100–112.
  18. D.C. Lee, C.J. Park, J.E. Yang, Y.H. Jeong, H.I. Rhee, Screening of hexavalent chromium biosorbent from marine algae, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 54 (2000) 597–600.
  19. J.P. Chen, L. Yang, Chemical modification of Sargassum sp. for prevention of organic leaching and enhancement of uptake during metal biosorption, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (2005) 9931–9942.
  20. J.L. Gardea-Torresdey, K.J. Tiemann, V. Armendariz, L. Bess-Oberto, R.R. Chianelli, J. Rios, J.G. Parsons, G. Gamez, Characterization of Cr(VI) binding and reduction to Cr(III) by the agricultural byproducts of Avena monida (Oat) biomass, J. Hazard. Mater., 80 (2000) 175–188.
  21. S.K. Prabhakaran, K. Vijayaraghavan, R. Balasubramanian, Removal of Cr(VI) ions by spent tea and coffee dusts: reduction to Cr(III) and biosorption, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48 (2009) 2113–2117.
  22. S.P. Dubey, K. Gopal, Adsorption of chromium(VI) on low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural waste material: a comparative study, J. Hazard. Mater., 145 (2007) 465–470.
  23. T.A. Davis, B. Volesky, R.H.S.F. Vieira, Sargassum seaweed as biosorbent for heavy metals, Water Res., 34 (2000) 4270–4278.
  24. M. Tsezos, Adsorption by microbial biomass as a process for removal of ions from process or waste solutions, Res. Gate, 18 (1986) 201–218.
  25. S.C. Wilkinson, K.H. Goulding, P.K. Robinson, Mercury removal by immobilized algae in batch culture systems, J. Appl. Phycol., 2 (1990) 223–230.
  26. A.C.A. da Costa, S.G.F. Leite, Metals biosorption by sodium alginate immobilized Chlorella homosphaera cells, Biotechnol. Lett., 13 (1991) 559–562.
  27. M.Z.-C. Hu, M. Reeves, Biosorption of uranium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU immobilized in a novel matrix, Biotechnol. Prog., 13 (1997) 60–70.
  28. S.K. Mehta, J.P. Gaur, Removal of Ni and Cu from single and binary metalsolutions by free and immobilized Chlorella vulgaris, Eur. J. Protistol., 37 (2001) 261–271.
  29. E. Valdman, S.G.F. Leite, Biosorption of Cd, Zn and Cu by Sargassum sp. waste biomass, Bioprocess Eng., 22 (2000) 171–173.
  30. M.C. Ncibi, Applicability of some statistical tools to predict optimum adsorption isotherm after linear and non-linear regression analysis, J. Hazard. Mater., 153 (2008) 207–212.
  31. S. Rangabhashiyam, N. Anu, N. Giri, N. Selvaraju, Relevance of isotherm models in biosorption of pollutants by agricultural byproducts, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2 (2014) 398–414.
  32. M. Prasad, H. Xu, S. Saxena, Multi-component sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto low-cost mineral adsorbent, J. Hazard. Mater., 154 (2008) 221–229.
  33. F. Renault, N. Morin-Crini, F. Gimbert, P.-M. Badot, G. Crini, Cationized starch-based material as a new ion-exchanger adsorbent for the removal of C.I. Acid Blue 25 from aqueous solutions, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008) 7573–7586.
  34. I.D. Mall, V.C. Srivastava, G.V.A. Kumar, I.M. Mishra, Characterization and utilization of mesoporous fertilizer plant waste carbon for adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution, Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 278 (2006) 175–187.
  35. A.A. Nunes, A.S. Franca, L.S. Oliveira, Activated carbons from waste biomass: an alternative use for biodiesel production solid residues, Bioresour. Technol., 100 (2009) 1786–1792.
  36. M.E. Argun, S. Dursun, C. Ozdemir, M. Karatas, Heavy metal adsorption by modified oak sawdust: thermodynamics and kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater., 141 (2007) 77–85.
  37. M.M. Dubinin, Modern state of the theory of volume filling of micropore adsorbents during adsorption of gases and steams on carbon adsorbents, Zh Fiz Khim, 39 (1965) 1305–1317.
  38. J.P. Hobson, Physical adsorption isotherms extending from ultrahigh vacuum to vapor pressure, J. Phys. Chem., 73 (1969) 2720–2727.
  39. S.Y. Elovich, O.G. Larinov, Theory of adsorption from solutions of non electrolytes on solid (I) equation adsorption from solutions and the analysis of its simplest form, (II) verification of the equation of adsorption isotherm from solutions, Res. Gate, 2 (1962) 209–216.
  40. S. Rangabhashiyam, E. Nakkeeran, N. Anu, N. Selvaraju, Biosorption potential of a novel powder, prepared from Ficus auriculata leaves, for sequestration of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions, Res. Chem. Intermed., 41 (2014) 8405–8424.
  41. O. Redlich, D.L. Peterson, A useful adsorption isotherm, J. Phys. Chem., 63 (1959) 1024.
  42. R. Sips, On the structure of a catalyst surface, J. Chem. Phys., 16 (1948) 490–495.
  43. R.A. Koble, T.E. Corrigan, Adsorption isotherms for pure hydrocarbons, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44 (1952) 383–387.
  44. Y. Yasin, F.B.H. Ahmad, M. Ghaffari-Moghaddam, M. Khajeh, Application of a hybrid artificial neural network–genetic algorithm approach to optimize the lead ions removal from aqueous solutions using intercalated tartrate-Mg–Al layered double hydroxides, Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manage., 1–2 (2014) 2–7.
  45. F. Zan, S. Huo, B. Xi, X. Zhao, Biosorption of Cd2+ and Cu2+ on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 6 (2011) 51–58.
  46. Y.S. Ho, G. McKay, Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem., 34 (1999) 451–465.
  47. G. Dönmez, Z. Aksu, Removal of chromium(VI) from saline wastewaters by Dunaliella species, Process Biochem., 38 (2002) 751–762.
  48. K.F. Tan, K.H. Chu, B.S. Gupta, M.A. Hashim, Studies on fixed-bed biosorption and elution of copper using polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized seaweed biomass, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A, 37 (2002) 1621–1632.
  49. A. Esposito, F. Pagnanelli, F. Vegliò, pH-related equilibria models for biosorption in single metal systems, Chem. Eng. Sci., 57 (2002) 307–313.
  50. N. Tamilselvan, K. Saurav, K. Kannabiran, Biosorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solutions by Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa racemosa algal biomass, J. Ocean Univ. China, 11 (2011) 52–58.
  51. R. Han, P. Han, Z. Cai, Z. Zhao, M. Tang, Kinetics and isotherms of Neutral Red adsorption on peanut husk, J. Environ. Sci. China, 20 (2008) 1035–1041.
  52. E. Valdman, L. Erijman, F.L.P. Pessoa, S.G.F. Leite, Continuous biosorption of Cu and Zn by immobilized waste biomass Sargassum sp., Process Biochem., 36 (2001) 869–873.
  53. K.H. Chu, M.A. Hashim, S.M. Phang, V.B. Samuel, Biosorption of cadmium by algal biomass: adsorption and desorption characteristics, Water Sci. Technol., 35 (1997) 115–122.
  54. S. Pradhan, L.C. Rai, Copper removal by immobilized Microcystis aeruginosa in continuous flow columns at different bed heights: study of the adsorption/desorption cycle, World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 17 (2001) 829–832.
  55. Y. Wang, Y. Li, F.J. Zhao, Bisorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze, Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip., 28 (2014) 259–265.