1. K. Kümmerer, Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks, Springer, Berlin, 2004.
  2. S. Pérez, D. Barceló, Fate and occurrence of X-ray contrast media in the environment, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 387 (2007) 1235–1246.
  3. A. Tiehm, N. Schmidt, M. Stieber, F. Sacher, L. Wolf, H. Hoetzl, Biodegradation of pharmaceutical compounds and their occurrence in the Jordan Valley, Water Resour. Manage., 25 (2011) 1195–1203.
  4. W. Seitz, J.-Q. Jiang, W. Schulz, W.H. Weber, D. Maier, M. Maier, Formation of oxidation by-products of the iodinated X-ray contrast medium iomeprol during ozonation, Chemosphere, 70 (2008) 1238–1246.
  5. F. Sacher, F.T. Lange, H.-J. Brauch, I. Blankenhorn, Pharmaceuticals in groundwaters – analytical methods and results of a monitoring program in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, J. Chromatogr., 938 (2001) 199–210.
  6. Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Summary of monitoring data on environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, 2011, text 66/11. ISSN 1862-4804.
  7. S.E. Duirk, C. Lindell, C.C. Cornelison, J. Kormos, T. Ternes, A. Thomas, M. Attene-Ramos, Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (2011) 6845–6854.
  8. I. Tröster, L. Schäfer, M. Fryda, T. Matthée, Electrochemical advanced oxidation process using DiaChem electrodes, Water Sci. Technol., 49 (2004) 207–212.
  9. A.M. Trautmann, H. Schell, K.R. Schmidt, K.-M. Mangold, A. Tiehm, Electrochemical degradation of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkly substances (PFASs) in groundwater, Water Sci. Technol., 71 (2015) 1569–1575.
  10. SRC PhysProp Database 2016 Syracuse Research and Development Cooperation, 2016. Available at: (Accessed 08.06.2016).
  11. A. Anglada, A. Urtiaga, I. Ortiz, Contributions of electrochemical oxidation to waste-water treatment: fundamentals and review of applications, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 84 (2009) 1747–1755.
  12. G. Del Moro, C. Pastore, C. Di Iaconi, G. Mascolo, Iodinated contrast media electro-degradation: process performance and degradation pathways, Sci. Total Environ., 506–507 (2015) 631–643.
  13. C.L. Eversloh, N. Henning, M. Schulz, T.A. Ternes, Electrochemical treatment of iopromide under conditions of reverse osmosis concentrates – elucidation of the degradation pathway, Water Res., 48 (2014) 237–246.
  14. C. Zwiener, T. Glauner, J. Sturm, M. Wörner, F.H. Frimmel, Electrochemical reduction of the iodinated contrast medium iomeprol: iodine mass balance and identification of transformation products, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 395 (2009) 1885–1892.
  15. J. Radjenovic, V. Flexer, B.C. Donose, D.L. Sedlak, J. Keller, Removal of the X-ray contrast media diatrizoate by electrochemical reduction and oxidation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47 (2013) 13686–13694.
  16. Q. Zhuo, S. Deng, B. Yang, J. Huang, B. Wang, T. Zhang, G. Yu, Degradation of perfluorinated compounds on a boron-doped diamond electrode, Electrochim. Acta, 77 (2012) 17–22.
  17. G. Chen, Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment, Sep. Purif. Technol., 38 (2004) 11–41.