1. Water and Sanitation – United Nations Sustainable Development. Available at: water-and-sanitation (Accessed 23 January 2017).
  2. Merriam-Webster’s Learner’s Online Dictionary, Simple Definition of Toilet, dictionary/toilet, accessed July 25, 2016.
  3. S. Hashemi, M. Han, T. Kim, Y. Kim, Innovative Toilet Technologies for Smart and Green Cities, Proc. 8th Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism, Incheon, 2015, pp. 873–879.
  4. Y. Kim, S. Hashemi, M. Han, T. Kim, H.G. Sohn, The waterless portable private toilet: an innovative sanitation solution in disaster zones, Disaster Med. Public Health Prep., 10 (2016) 281–285.
  5. World Health Organization, Sanitation, 2015. Available at: (Accessed 25 July 2016).
  6. M.Y. Han, M.K. Kim, Revising the Technical and Social Aspects to Wastewater Management in Ancient Korea, A.N. Angelakis, J.B. Rose, Eds., Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies through the Centuries, IWA Publishing, London, 2014, pp. 301–311.
  7. P. Bracken, A. Wachtler, A. Panesar, J. Lange, The road not taken: how traditional excreta and greywater management may point the way to a sustainable future, Water Sci. Technol., 7 (2007) 219–227.
  8. S. Cavill, R. Chambers, N. Vernon, Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock, Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, Issue 4, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, 2015.
  9. A.E. Aiello, E.L. Larson, R. Sedlak, Against Disease: The Impact of Hygiene and Cleanliness on Health, The Soap and Detergent Association, Washington, D.C., USA, 2007.
  10. C.E. Clement, The Eternal City, Rome: Its Religions, Monuments, Literature and Art, Vol. I, Estes and Lauriat, Boston, 1896.
  11. J.J. Mattelaer, Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles, World J. Urol., 17 (1999) 145–150.
  12. U. Winblad, M. Simpson-Hebert, The Traditional Vietnamese Double Vault Toilet, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Sweden, 2004.
  13. E.P. Hoyt, Hygiene in ancient China, Chest, 61 (1972) 133.
  14. J. Needham, L. Gwei-Djen, Hygiene and preventive medicine in ancient China, Health Educ. J. 17 (1959) 170–179.
  15. United Nations Millennium Development Goals, 2015. Available at: shtml (Accessed 23 January 2017).
  16. A.E.F. La Berge, Mission and Method: The Early Nineteenth- Century French Public Health Movement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.
  17. E. Tilley, L. Ulrich, C. Lüthi, P. Reymond, C. Zurbrügg, Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2nd ed., Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Duebendorf, 2014.
  18. N. Chiarawatchai, F. Klingel, C. Werner, P. Bracken, Technical Data Sheets for Ecosan Components, 02 Dehydration Toilets – B3 Dehydration Toilets without Urine Diversion, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Bonn, 2005.
  19. T.A. Larsen, J. Lienert, NoMix – A New Approach to Urban Water Management, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland, 2007.
  20. C. Lüthi, T.A. Larsen, Sanitation Innovation for Urban Slums: the Blue Diversion Toilet, 3rd International Conference on Technologies for Development, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2014.
  21. International Water Association, Resource Oriented Sanitation. Available at: (Accessed 12 February 2017).
  22. United States Environmental Protection Agency, High- Efficiency Toilets, Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832- F-00–047, USEPA, Washington, D.C., 2000.
  23. M. Han, S. Hashemi, S.H. Joo, T. Kim, Novel integrated systems for controlling and prevention of mosquito-borne diseases caused by poor sanitation and improper water management, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 4 (2016) 3718–3723.
  24. SANItaryRecycling ESCHborn, Summary of the Presentations Held at the Meeting of the SANIRESCH Project Partners. Available at: (Accessed 25 July 2016).
  25. United Nations Environment Programme, Environmentally Sound Technologies in Wastewater Treatment for the Implementation of the UNEP Global Programme of Action (GPA) ”Guidance On Municipal Wastewater”. Available at: summary/2.asp (Accessed 25 July 2016).
  26. S.A. Esrey, J. Gough, D. Rapoport, R. Sawyer, M. Simpson- Hebert, J. Vargas, U. Winblad, Ecological Sanitation, SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), Stockholm, 1998.
  27. S. Hashemi, M. Han, T. Kim, Identification of urine scale problems in urinals and the solution using rainwater, J. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev., 5 (2015) 322–329.
  28. P. Cohn, The Science behind ‘The Martian’ Movie Gets a NASA ‘thumbs up’. Available at: (Accessed 25 January 2017).